Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Discussion question Personal Statement Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Discussion question - Personal Statement Example The movement became popular in 1965, and peaked in the year 1968, and it managed to unite a large percentage of the Americans to protest against President Kennedy’s role in Vietnam. The unity in protesting against the war was depicted on October 1965, where there was thousands of debate on the morality of the war. This day was termed as the Vietnam Day (Hampton et al, 1990). This war also led to the emergence and recognition of student organizations as a force capable of promoting civil rights of people. For instance, in 1964, there emerged the students movement termed as the Freedom Summer, under the leadership of Mario Savio. The movement main objective was to protest against the war, and it did this by cooperating with other human rights organizations, and organizing mass movements to sensitize the government of their displeasure (Hampton et al, 1990). In 1966, the University students formed the Under Ground Press Syndicate, whose objective was to share intelligence information concerning the war with various civil rights movements. Freedom Summer Movement also formed the Liberation News Channel, which managed to mobilize more than a thousand seminarians who wrote protest letters to the secretary of defense. In conclusion, this conflict should not be seen as promoting civil rights, and this is because many people died and property destroyed. The speech by Martin Luther managed to accelerate the progress of the civil right movement in United States of America. Due to the speech, and his actions, the United States Legislature managed to pass a bill termed as the Civil Rights Act, 1968. The act protected a person against discrimination due to his race, religion or national origin, when such a person was involved in transactions related to housing projects (Hampton et al, 1990). This speech by Martin Junior King precipitated the emergence of more civil rights groups to fight for equality among

Monday, October 28, 2019

Food and Industry Essay Example for Free

Food and Industry Essay Political This can have two extreme effects on threat of new entrants. If the government brings out higher restaurant license cost and increased taxes and/or implements strict health and safety regulations along with more documentation procedures, this will increase the barriers to entry. However, if the government does the opposite by decreasing license cost and taxes or has a lenient approach to health and safety procedures, the threat of new entrants will be high. Economic. Due to the rising income disparity and the adverse economic conditions, the number of unemployed is increasing due to which the labor cost will decrease, and the up-class restaurants will be more in demand as the rich are getting richer. Thus, the threat of entrants is high because of increased profit margins in such ventures. In case of improvement in the economy, more people could afford to go out to restaurants which give more opportunities for new restaurants to come up. Social. The current social trend is in favor of eating out especially at expensive restaurants, thereby, increasing their demand and also owning such eat-outs is now very socially appealing thus, increasing the threat of new entrants. Technological The rise in innovative technology has made management of restaurants very easy and the new sophisticated software now enable restaurants to run with less number of employees, thereby, reducing the labor cost. Thus, this factor increases the threat of new entrants. |B |Bargaining Power of Buyers |Yes |~ |No | | | |(+) | |(–) | | |Are there a large number of buyers relative to the number of firms in the business? |[pic] | | | | |Do you have a large number of customers, each with relatively small purchases? |[pic] | | | | |Does the customer face any significant costs in switching suppliers? | | |[pic] | | |Does the buyer need a lot of important information? | | |[pic] | | |Is the buyer aware of the need for additional information? | | |[pic] | | |Is there anything that prevents your customer from taking your function in-house? |[pic] | | | | |Your customers are not highly sensitive to price. |[pic] | | | | |Your product is unique to some degree or has accepted branding. |[pic] | | | | |Your customers’ businesses are profitable. | |[pic] | | | |You provide incentives to the decision makers. | | |[pic] | Interpretation The bargaining power of buyer is low in the industry firstly because their product is a commodity item and consumers have no choice but to continue consumption, as it is also a form of entertainment in our country. This makes the industry more attractive and profitable and the PEST forces such as increasing population is an appealing opportunity, however, the economic situation of the country brings along adverse effects on the industry. Nandos should therefore, bank on the rising income disparity. PEST forces that affect Bargaining Power of Buyers Political This political factor has no direct affect on the bargaining power of buyers. Economic The increasing population reduces the power of buyers. Even though the adverse economic situation of Pakistan is reducing the consumer base, it is still not making much impact on the bargaining power of buyers. Social The trend is moving towards eating at restaurants, which is increasing the base of consumers, thus, reducing their bargaining power. Technological The advancement in technology makes it possible for the buyer to gather all the information quickly and make informed decisions. Thus, this is increasing the bargaining power of buyers. |C |Threat of Substitutes |Yes |~ |No | | | |(+) | |(–) | | |Substitutes have performance limitations that do not completely offset their lowest price. Or, |[pic] | | | | |their performance is not justified by their higher price. | | | | | |The customer will incur costs in switching to a substitute. | | |[pic] | | |Your customer has no real substitute. |[pic] | | | | |Your customer is not likely to substitute. | |[pic] | | Interpretation The threat of substitutes is medium to low, as this industry does not have any real substitutes, because restaurants offer unique experiences along with their basic product i. e. food items. In Pakistan, eating out is a form of entertainment and people generally like going to specific restaurants and cafes because of their splendid experience in the past including ambience and food. Nandos should therefore concentrate their efforts on upgrading their restaurant ambience and the taste offered by them. PEST forces that affect Threat of Substitutes There aren’t many substitutes of the restaurant industry. However, decrease in the purchasing power of the people could lessen their visits to the restaurants thereby increasing the threat of substitutes. If better substitutes are provided to people such as more variety in the ready-to-cook foods could increase the threat of substitutes. |D |Bargaining Power of Suppliers |Yes |~ |No | | | |(+) | |(–) | | |My inputs (materials, labor, supplies, services, etc. ) are standard rather than unique or | | |[pic] | | |differentiated | | | | | |I can switch between suppliers quickly and cheaply. | | |[pic] | | |My suppliers would find it difficult to enter my business or my customers would find it difficult | | |[pic] | | |to perform my function in-house. | | | | | |I can substitute inputs readily. | | |[pic] | | |I have many potential suppliers. | | |[pic] | | |My business is important to my suppliers. |[pic] | | | | |My cost of purchases has no significant influence on my overall costs. | | |[pic] | Interpretation Bargaining power of suppliers is high because the inputs are not easily substituted, keeping in mind only those companies in the industries that are rather cautious about their inputs as poor quality inputs can cause them a hefty amount of business. Also, the inputs are usually of a perishable nature, thus, stock-ups are not possible, that is why reliability of suppliers is very important. Therefore, these companies usually have one or two major supplier of main inputs, who can provide good quality inputs in a timely manner. This is an unattractive aspect of this industry, that’s why; Nandos should integrate backward by probably farming their chicken, in order to eliminate this power of suppliers. PEST forces that affect Bargaining Power of Suppliers Political. If the government grants subsidies to other chicken suppliers so that they are able to produce at the same level and with same quality as KnN, then the supplier power will reduce. If the government establishes quality standards for using hygienic meat products, the supplier power would go very high since there is only one major chicken supplier. Economic The current economic situation of the country will reduce large scale companies such as KnN; thus, the supplier power will increase. Also our poultry industry is â€Å"going down†. This will further increase the power of suppliers. Social. This factor will not affect the input of food industry. Technological Technology has made it possible to manage the poultry industry, thus enabling more suppliers to come in. therefore, the power of suppliers will reduce. |E |Determinants of Rivalry among existing competition |Yes |~ |No | | | |(+) | |(–) | | |The industry is growing rapidly. |[pic] | | | | |The industry is not cyclical with intermittent overcapacity. | | |[pic] | | |The fixed costs of the business are a relatively low portion of total costs. | | |[pic] | | |There are significant product differences and brand identities between the competitors. |[pic] | | | | |The competitors are diversified rather than specialized. |[pic] | | | | |It would not be hard to get out of this business because there are no specialized skills and |[pic] | | | | |facilities or long-term contract commitments, etc. | | | | | |My customers would incur significant costs in switching to a competitor. | | |[pic] | | |My product is complex and requires a detailed understanding on the part of my customer. | | |[pic] | | |My competitors are all of approximately the same size as I am. | | |[pic] | Interpretation. The rivalry amongst the existing firms is moderate to high as each tries to outdo the other by offering cost-effective deals to the consumers especially during Ramadan. With the increasing rate with which these eat-outs are opening, the market share for each of them is deteriorating. Thus, each is rigorously competing against the rest. In such situation, it is usually the restaurants with small operations such as Nandos that suffer. Nandos should therefore, try to combat this issue by increasing their operation via market penetration or market development. PEST forces that affect Rivalry among existing competition. Political If the government grants subsidies to local competitors to match the international chains, the rivalry will increase. Economic The fake economic growth has increased the availability of funds; therefore the competitors can match international chains now. Thus, the rivalry will increase. Social This factor will not affect the input of the Restaurant Industry. Technological Technology has made it possible for competitors to affectively reduce cost, thereby, enabling to match each other and copy the others competitive advantage. This will increase the rivalry between competitors. | |Overall Industry Rating |Favorable |Moderate |Un-favorable |Implications | | |Threat of new entrants |3 |2 |7 | | | | | | | |Threat of new entrants is high | | | | | | |Unfavorable | | |Bargaining power of buyers |5 |1 |4 | | | | | | | |Bargaining power of buyers is Low | | | | | | |Favorable | | |Threat of substitutes |2 |1 |1 | | | | | | | |Threat of substitutes is Medium to Low | | | | | | |Somewhat Favorable | | |Bargaining power of suppliers |1 |0 |6 | | | | | | | |Bargaining power of suppliers is high | | | | | | |Unfavorable | | |Intensity of rivalry among competitors |4 |0 |5 | | | | |. | | |Intensity or rivalry is Moderately High | | | | | | |Unfavorable | | |Total |15 |4 |23 |Reasonably Unattractive | Interpretation Overall, it is an unfavorable industry as the major cities of Pakistan are swamped with many restaurants and cafes. Nevertheless, the industry position can be exploited to ones advantage, if strategically smart decisions are taken. For Nandos, the recommendations include: †¢ Constantly innovate and bring in more competitive advantage that are unmatchable, in order to reduce the threat of new entrants. †¢ Backward integration to reduce the power of suppliers. †¢ More effective differentiation to reduce the rivalry between Nandos and competitors. 1 Overall Macro-Environmental Pest Factors Political Factors: The political factors that mainly affect Nandos concern how the government relates to health issues concerning food items being served or brings out new regulations regarding the restaurant business. For Instance: when Bird Flu occurred in Pakistan, if the government would have asked for ban on chicken items or some strict regulations on the chicken items being served, then it would have highly affected Nandos as well. Government regulations regarding franchises or international chain of restaurants would affect Nandos in relations to itself or in dealing with its competitors. Economic Factors: Pakistan is a developing country and the majority of the population has low purchasing power. Nandos caters to that niche of the Pakistani society that has a relatively higher purchasing power than the majority of the nation. Any economic instability or economic recession would decrease the power of a lot of consumers, decreasing the niche segment that Nandos caters to. Thus economic power does affect Nandos as people tend to spend less on eating out at relatively expensive places when they have a tighter budget. If the economy develops and more people have the purchasing power, then more people would be able to visit restaurants like Nandos. Social Factors: The trend of eating out has been carrying on in Pakistan since a very longtime. Pakistani people have always loved eating out. It is even the main source of entertainment in Pakistan. Earlier on families would go and eat out, but since the past few years, this trend increased even further in teenagers, young adults and with corporate people. Nowadays, if we visit any restaurant such as Nandos, we get to see a diverse crowd that includes teenagers, families, couples and even corporate businessmen. Thus eating out is becoming an increasingly important social trend which works positively for places like Nandos. Technological Factors: The restaurant business works well where the management handles the service well. To be quicker and more efficient in processing and then serving the orders, restaurants need to have better technology. To keep records of day-to-business, better technology is essentially important. Cooking also requires better equipments to work faster and better. Nandos has the essential equipment to make all of its flame-grilled items which even works towards providing healthier items by not making deep-fried products. 2 Key Driving Forces Affecting the Industry †¢ The Internet and new E-Commerce opportunities The Internet can revolutionize the entire restaurant industry by including the aspects of ordering food online. In this way consumers could be provided with more convenience and be more informed about the menus. †¢ Increasing globalization of the industry Global chains of restaurants such as fast food joints like KFC and Mc Donald’s have existed since a very long time now. The aspect of a global chain leaves a positive impression on the minds of the people since they tend to believe that the product is of quality and hygiene. More and more restaurants are following this trend and opening up their chains in Pakistan. This does affect the restaurant industry on a whole. Nandos is also globally widespread but it hasn’t penetrated much in Pakistan as yet. †¢ Product Innovation Those restaurants that have had a unique menu or recipe have been able create a strong place in the industry. People have always wanted variety in Pakistan. Any new element or uniqueness in a restaurant’s menu could give it a competitive edge in the market. Nandos has banked on this opportunity by introducing an entirely new concept adopted from South Africa. †¢ Technological Change Advances in technology can dramatically transform the restaurant industry. Technological developments can competitively produce significant changes in the distribution channel and logistics and reduce the costs in the value chain. †¢ Entry or Exit of major firms Exit of major firms in the restaurant industry can lead to changes in market shares of all the companies that compete with such firms. Entry is relatively easy and keeps on leading to increased competition in this industry. †¢ Changes in cost and efficiency Decrease in cost can lead to significant changes in the profit margin of the business. However increasing costs can prove to be detrimental to the businesses in the industry. †¢ Regulatory influences and government policy changes Regulatory influences or policy changes such as increased quality and hygiene standards can drive up costs of firms but would lead to better and safer food items. †¢ Changing societal concerns, attitudes and lifestyles Emerging social issues and changing attitudes and lifestyles can be powerful driving forces of industry change. The trend of eating out has been increasing consistently in Pakistan giving more opportunities for new companies to come with more and more variety for the public. 3 External Factor Evaluation (EFE) |Key External Factors |Weight |Rating |Weighted Score | | | | | | |Opportunities | | | | |Market Potential growing market for fast casual |0. 17 |2 |0. 34 | |Peoples need for variety in the food and entertainmnt sector |0. 10 |3 |0. 3 | |Rising Demand for Home delivery and Takeout |0. 08 |3 |0. 24 | |E-commerce |0. 02 |1 |0. 02 | |Peoples preference for red meat |0. 06 |1 |0. 06 | |Peoples attraction towards promotional offers |0. 08 |2 |0. 16 | |Increasing trends for business/corporate lunches and dinners |0. 05 |3 |0. 15 | | | | | | |Threats | | | | |Economic Problems in the country |0. 09 |2 |0. 18 | |Bird Flu Threat |0. 03 |3 |0. 09 | |Political Problems in the country |0. 02 |2 |0. 04 | |Growing market for cafes in Pakistan |0. 06 |2 |0. 12 | |Availability of nandos table sauces in the market |0. 03 |2 |0. 06 | |Only one chicken supplier (KnNs) |0. 08 |2 |0. 16 | |Huge variety of Restaurants, fastfood places |0. 12 |2 |0. 24 | |Changing tastes of people |0. 01 |2 |0. 02 | | | | | | |Total |1. 00 | |2. 18 | Analysis: Nandos, Pakistan’s total weighted score is rather disappointing considering their global background. Currently their total weighted score of 2. 18 is about 20% less than the industry average of 2. 5. They are not exploiting the opportunities in the food industry to their advantage neither are they combating the threats well. The most major opportunity staring them in the face is the rising market potential which has the highest weighted score of 0. 34, as the trend in Pakistan is moving towards fast-casuals. To handle this opportunity they must open up new outlets to cater to the untapped vicinities. Another opportunity that has a high score of 0. 3 is the peoples need for variety. The strategy for such an opportunity would be to add varieties like fancy beverages (e. g. cocktails and mocktails), sea-food and meat in their menu (available at Nandos outlets in other countries of the world). Of the threats, that needs their immediate attention is the rate with which new restaurants that â€Å"Pop-up†. To counter this Nandos must concentrate on increasing its efforts on rightly implementing their Focused Differentiation Strategy. They should further enhance their brand image to capture more loyal customers. Another threat which has a relatively high weighted score is the economic problems of Pakistan; the way this can be overcome is by establishing subsidiaries under another name. The third biggest threat with a weighted score of 0. 16 is that they have only one reliable supplier; they can definitely counter this via backward integration that would include farming their own chicken. Company and Competitor Analysis 1 Competitive Profile Matrix (CPM) |Key Success factors | |NANDO’S |BBQ Tonite |Roasters |GunSmoke | | |Weight |Rating |Weighted Score | | | | | | |Strengths | | | | |Product their Peri-Peri recipe |0. 20 |4 |0. 8 | |Strong brand personality |0. 07 |3 |0. 21 | |Ambience at the restaurant |0. 05 |3 |0. 15 | |Customer Loyalty |0. 02 |3 |0. 06 | |Marketing efforts towards the consumer base |0. 05 |3 |0. 15 | |Strong Supplier/Distribution system |0. 10 |4 |0. 4 | |Products have essential ingredients for a health life |0. 01 |2 |0. 02 | |Strong Background from Africa present till today |0. 01 |3 |0. 03 | |Selling Experience |0. 04 |4 |0. 16 | |Strong food concept |0. 02 |3 |0. 06 | |Strong Globalize Strategy adaptive to culture |0. 06 |4 |0. 24 | |Creative and unique Menu |0. 02 |4 |0. 08 | | | | | | |Weaknesses | | | | |Low Marketing Budget |0. 08 |2 |0. 16 | |Stagnant Growth Not penetrated |0. 15 |2 |0. 3 | |Communication system within dept- not strong |0. 04 |2 |0. 08 | |Weak Technological system in the Administration Department |0. 04 |1 |0. 04 | |No Beverage Variety |0. 04 |2 |0. 08 | |Total |1. 00 | |3. 02 | Analysis: The total weighted score of 3. 02 is 20. 8% more than the average industry weighted score. The reason for such a phenomenal score is their PERI PERI recipe which is their main strength with the highest weight. Basting, marinating and table sauces are usually the most important ingredients and they are definitely quiet effectively banking on this strength. Their delicious basting and marinating sauces still remain a mystery to the rest of the world. Along with this, they are handling all their strengths really well with the exception of their healthy ingredients, which they are handling in an average way, although, it has a low weight considering the psyche of Pakistanis, they can definitely improve their score by communicating the nutritional values of their ingredients. On the other hand, they are very poorly countering their weakness. Their main weakness is their stagnant growth with the highest weight and with only a sore of 2. There is no evidence, that they are willing to do anything about it as their outlets are still missing in the major cities of Pakistan, like Islamabad. They should definitely improve their growth rate and try to improve their marketing budget. This will definitely enhance their total weighted score. The strategies to improve the growth rate would include market development and product development via establishing more outlets and increasing the variety in their menu, respectively. Strategic Analysis and Recommendations 1 Generic Strategy [pic] Although, Nandos Pakistan claims to be following a Focused Differentiation Strategy, they haven’t really implemented it that well. Nandos Pakistan caters to that Niche market which requires a different taste and value and is prepared to pay the price for it. Their focus is entirely on the Upper Middle and Upper-Upper class. The strategies implemented by Nandos have not exactly catered specifically to this focused differentiation strategy. The company needs to make effort in targeting and communicating their real value to its specific set of consumers. Another contradiction in this strategy is that there is no outlet in Islamabad, Pakistan, where mostly the rich and the influential reside. Now is the time to really bank on the rising income disparity in the economy via increasing their prices. This will also attract more customers from upper-middle/high class, as it is quiet socially appealing for them to dine at expensive places. Nevertheless, Nandos offers only chicken items; this is in line with their current strategy. They should really check their strategic approach or correct their focus. Nandos should stick to its focused differentiation strategy. The following strategies have recommended for improving their strategic position: †¢ Increase their prices to capture a larger share of their current target market. †¢ Open up outlet in the major cities of Pakistan like Islamabad and Faisalabad. †¢ Effectively communicate their niche marketing strategy to their target audience to further emphasize what their brand actually stands for. †¢ Add value by offering an outstanding service which is unforgettable and unmatchable. ‘Nando’s is devoted to providing its customers appetite for life, who love to laugh and live to eat. At Nandos we believe in our flame-grilled Peri-Peri Chicken, we believe its the best in the world. We aim to be the most successful grilled food restaurant in the world at delivering the best customer experience in markets we serve and to do so, Nando’s will meet its customer expectations through highest quality food prepared with leading technology and by hiring and retaining personnel with exceptional capabilities. We believe in offering quality and value to our customers and grow in such a way that creates profitability and value for shareholders and structure the society in such a way so as to improve the quality of life of the whole community. Our distinctive competence is our open style of informal restaurants, through the wonderful saying Mi Casa so casa My home is your home. ’ ‘Our vision is to be the first choice in grilled food restaurant business around the globe. ’ HIGH LOW HIGH LOW HIGH LOW HIGH LOW HIGH LOW Customer Home Delivery Dine-in Take-Away Kitchen Restaurant/Retail Outlet Store Warehouse in Pakistan Fries from McKainz Ketchup from Knorr Chicken from KnN’s Peri-Peri Sauces from South Africa.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Zero Coupon Bonds Essay -- essays research papers

Zero coupon bonds, more commonly known as â€Å"strips† or â€Å"zeros†, are fixed income securities that unlike other bonds, pay no interest until maturity. This means that instead of paying semi-annual interest like other bonds, the interest is compounded throughout the life of the bond and is paid in full upon maturity. Zero coupon bonds are ideal long-term investments for people who have a specific situation, which calls for a specific amount of money to be acquired at a future date, mainly ten to twenty years in the future. These bonds offer a great variety of benefits that are attractive to investors who are looking for more of a long-term investment. They also pose a few drawbacks, but are outweighed by their advantages which make them a sound investment.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Zero coupon municipal bonds combine the benefits of the zero coupon instrument with those of tax-exempt municipal securities and offer the following advantages: Low Minimum Investment The first thing that comes to mind when investing in zero coupon bonds is its low initial investment. Zeros are sold at a deep discount relative to other bonds and therefore can be purchased with a low minimum investment. Investors purchase zeros for much less than their face value, which is typically in increments of $5000, however, zero-coupon bonds with face values of $1000 are also sold. The greater the number of years a zero-coupon bond has until maturity, the less an investor has to pay for it. The reason of such a low initial investment is another benefit of zeros, compounded interest. The small initial dollar outlay makes zeros attractive investments for many investors. It allows investors to put aside a modest amount of money today and know exactly how much they will receive at a specific future date. Tax Advantages Another benefit of zero-coupon bonds is its possible tax advantages. Interest on municipal zero-coupon bonds is exempt from federal income taxes and, in many cases, free from state and local taxes. Because municipal zeros offer the benefit of compound interest free from federal taxes, they provide returns that are often much higher on a net basis than comparable taxable securities. ‘Zeros purchased prior to April 1993 and held to maturity are not subject to capital gains tax unless they are purchased at a price lower than the compound accreted value (CAV). The sale or excha... ...e volatility of the bond. Zeros are extremely volatile investments. This means that if the interest rate changes, it can swing the price of the bond in either direction. However, this is only a problem if the bond is sold before maturity. If the bond is held to the mature date, the investor will receive the full face value. If the bond is sold before it matures, there could be a possibility that the investor could lose money. Another inconvenience that zeros offer is its possible tax charges. Although zeros don’t include any coupon payments because they pay no annual interest, the investor is still obligated to pay income tax on the interest he would of earned for the year even though he didn’t receive it. Of course there are ways around this if you invest in tax-exempt municipals where there are no charges. One more drawback of zeros is that they can be callable. This means that the issuer has the right to repurchase the bond back from the investor at any time before maturity. If the issuer repays the bond at a certain percentage rate, it can potentially lose money for the investor. You would also have to pay a capital gains tax if the IRS thinks you made more than you should.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Kesa and Morito

Love or Lust In Akutagawa’s â€Å"Kesa and Morito†, the text suggests notable differences between love and lust. In regards to the underlined symbols of love and lust, the characters identified within the short story may portray the differences between the symbols. Wataru’s character may symbolize the meaning of true love, and will identify the correlation to that of purity and innocence. However, the characteristics of Kesa and Morito may symbolize lust, and the evil and selfishness associated with it. Love may create kind and giving acts, such as the text describes Wataru’s actions toward Kesa.On the other hand, lust may lead to destructive and irrational gestures that are described by Kesa and Morito’s defining actions. According to Morito, Wataru Saemon-no-jo made a valiant effort to win the heart of his wife Mesa. Wataru loves his wife Kesa, and his actions proved such fact. Kesa’s aunt Koromogawa further stated, Wataru â€Å"spared no pain or effort to win Kesa’s heart† (p. 436). He has a reputation of being a prosaic man. With that said, Wataru even took on the burden of learning poetry. Wataru expressed his love for Kesa through the noted examples.The true symbol of love within the text appears to acknowledge Wataru and his efforts to win over Kesa. Wataru has a profound love for his wife. Due to such love, the text implies that Kesa and Morito may have felt sympathetic toward him. In a few circumstances, Kesa and Morito actually consider Wataru’s feeling throughout their encounter. In the beginning of the story, Morito explains how his heart would hurt if he has to kill a man he does not hate. When Morito found out that Wataru and Kesa were married, he burned with jealousy. After the affair with Kesa, Morito mentioned that his jealousy faded away.He actually stated that he has no hatred or spite toward Wataru. In fact, Morito thought kindly of Wataru. One can understand how Morito could bec ome jealous, knowing that the woman of his desire married another. After all, Morito had an association with Kesa three years prior. Without the three year absence, their relationship may have been different. Thus, many reasons can account for Morito to dislike or have hatred toward Wataru. Although the text does not state the exact reason Morito thinks kindly of Wataru, the inference may lead one to suggest.Due to the honorable means Wataru won over the heart of Kesa, Morito could not maintain malice thoughts. Ultimately, Morito acknowledged Wataru’s innocent and pure love for Kesa. Such attribute most likely caused Morito to idolize his character. Lusting after the flesh can be just a mere thought. Once the thought becomes an action, significant ramifications may follow. According to Morito, during the three year separation from Kesa, he dreamed of an intimate encounter with her. He never admits to loving Kesa, therefore an inference may suggest the feeling of superficial d esires.The dream of intimacy can lead one to believe that lust is a factor. As mentioned in the earlier text, Morito once burned with jealousy over the union between Kesa and Wataru. After their affair, the jealousy faded. Such fact may lead one to believe that love could not appear as a factor. Several times after intimacy, Morito questions his own feeling for Kesa. â€Å"But do I really love Kesa†? (p. 437) Morito asks. He thought that he loved her before she married Wataru. After looking into his own heart, he realized several motives may have caused such thought. Morito struggles with the fact that he had not intimately engaged her years prior.Knowing that Morito had never experienced intimacy prior to their absence, his fleshly desire may have been the driving force. His proclaimed love for her may simply unveil nothing more than â€Å"sentimental embellishment of the motive that drove Adam to Eve† (p. 437). The text suggests that within their three year break in association, Morito appeared unsure of his love for Kesa. Morito felt tortured with the fact of not experiencing Kesa’s body. He describes the feeling as regretful. Upon the completion of the Watanabe Bridge, Morito finally connected with Kesa.Morito resorted to all sorts of means to reconnect with the woman of his desires. Once they met, the regrets immediately began to fade. Due to the fact that he broke his virginity, his fleshly desire may have dissipated. As the text progress, Morito describes the diminished beauty of Kesa. He describes his disappointment, because she did not appear how he envisioned her to be. Morito states, that she does not possess the â€Å"statuesque beauty that he had imagined for the past three years† (p. 438). At such time, Morito felt the need to maintain the course and accomplish his past lustful desires.After intercourse, Morito felt an empty feeling. He did not feel an attachment with Kesa. Morito describes how lust dominated him. The unexplainable lust turned into hatred. Like a blink of an eye, Morito despised Mesa. After describing the confusion he felt with the lust and hatred, Morito decided to kill Wataru. As mentioned in the earlier passage, Morito thought kindly of Wataru. However, due to the confusion of lust and hatred, Morito felt no other way to address such iniquities. The gesture of killing Wataru clearly implies an irrational thought process, and could not be explained by Morito.Upon interpreting Kesa’s motive to engage in adultery, it appears that lustful feelings factored in her decision. According to Kesa, she felt ashamed of her actions. She described that she would have to live in shame, and live life like a prostitute. â€Å"In this case I shall carry my regret beyond my grave,† (p. 440) Kesa stated. Uncertain if Morito would kill Wataru, Kesa refers to Morito as selfish. Kesa describes the feeling of hurt, based upon the perception of ugliness within her heart. According to the text, Kesa mentions how she gave her body to a man she did not love.Her lustful behavior appears to summarize her action as a, â€Å"delirious moment† (p. 440). In addition, Kesa refers to Morito as a â€Å"lascivious man who hates and despises me† (p. 440). Although Kesa made it clear that she can not reciprocate her husband’s love, she maintains a deceitful lust for Morito. Kesa made an omission that she had a shameful desire for Morito. Ultimately, Kesa cast blame on Morito for taking her body for, â€Å"his wicked lust† (p. 441). After rationalizing the deadly ending, Kesa ponders about her husband’s feeling, in the event he should find her dead.In the end, her statement was, â€Å"no I won’t think of him† (p. 441). The contrast between love and lust were noted throughout â€Å"Kesa and Morito†. The only person associated with the symbol of love appears pure, genuine, and honorable. Wataru possesses all of those attributes and characteristics. On the other hand, Kesa and Morito were the symbols of lust and fleshly desires. Due to the decision to act upon the lustful desires, the text outlined reactions to such actions. In conclusion, the symbols of lust define the actions of evil and irrational thought processing.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Antigone Tragic Hero Essay Essay

Most Greek tragedies were based on myths and consisted of a series of dramatic episodes mixed with a chorus who commented on the dramatic action or analyzed the pattern of events. The role of a tragic hero was vital to the tragic plays. Sophocles argues that a tragic hero is a character who possesses six specific traits. A tragic hero must be of noble stature, can not be perfect, their downfall most be their fault, their misfortune is not wholly deserved, the fall is not a total loss, and has a moral purpose. Therefore, Creon is the tragic hero in Antigone because he is of noble stature, posses character flaws, and his fall is not an entire loss. Creon is the brother of Jocasta, who was the wife and mother of Oedipus, who was the king of Thebes. He becomes ruler of Thebes after the s of Oedipus’ two sons, Eteocles and Polynices in the recent civil war. In his speech to the people assuring the citizens that order and safety have returned to Thebes he says, â€Å"I now posses the throne and all its powers†(line 194, page 67). This passage easily shows that Creon is the ruler of Thebes because it says that he posses the throne which is a possession of the king. This shows that Creon is of noble stature, which is one of the necessities of a tragic hero. Throughout the whole play Creon exhibits that he is imperfect. Creon is very stubborn as well as ignorant, which results in his many problems all through the play. In his dispute with Haemon over the fate of Antigone he says, % –show me a greater crime in all the earth! She, she destroys cities, rips up houses, breaks the ranks of spearmen into headlong rout. But the ones who last it out, the great mass of them owe their lives to discipline. Therefore we must defend the men who live by law, never let some woman triumph over us. Better to fall from power, if fall we must, at the hands of a man–never be rated inferior to a woman, never (lines 751-761 page 94).† The word % † basically means â€Å"without a leader.† He makes it sound as if he may be speaking about Antigone. Creon looks at as the unavoidable consequence when insubordination of the law is left with impunity. This excerpt vividly shows how Creon is very stubborn and ignorant. He refuses to see that woman play a  major role in society. He only views them as objects. He visions woman as a threat to masculine superiority and he will stop at nothing to avert this from happening. His refusal to allow Antigone to go free ultimately results in the of his son and his wife. This shows that Creon is imperfect, which is also one of the requirements of a tragic hero. By the end of the play, after the of his wife and son, Creon gains some self-knowledge and learns from what he has done. After Creon learns of the of his wife and son he says, â€Å"Ohhh, so senseless, so insane†¦ my crimes, my stubborn, ly— Look at us, the killer, the killed, father and son, the same —the misery! My plans, my mad fanatic heart, my son, cut off so young! Ai, , lost to the world. Not through you stupidity, no, my own (line 1395-1400, page 124).† This quotation from the play illustrates that Creon realizes that his stubbornness and foolishness is the cause of all of this pandemonium. Creon now understands that his flaws resulted in his family’s . He then goes on to say, â€Å"Oh I’ve learned through and tears (line 1405-1406, page 124).† This shows that he has learned his lesson so the of his family is not a complete loss because now he is aware of the fact that it is because of his stubbornness and stupidity that this occ urred. This shows that Creon’s fall is now a pure loss, which is as well, a condition of a tragic hero. Creon is the tragic hero in Antigone because he is of noble stature, posses character flaws, and his fall is not an entire loss. These flaws eventually are what leads Creon to his demise and to the of his wife and son. In Antigone there were numerous themes. One of the themes is pride and its effect on the characters. Both Antigone and Creon are exceedingly proud, making it impossible for either one of them to back down once they have taken a position on something. This character flaw leads to their downfall. In contemporary times, we can relate this type of tragic hero to powerful figures like Donald Rumsfeld, who does not waver from his positions until others have paid a heavy price for his pride. Another theme is Moral Law vs. Human Law. This is shown when Antigone’s conscience influences her to bury her brother, which conflicts with Creons law of the state. It’s a decision of whether morals should be placed above the human law. A semi-modern  example of this can be seen in World War II where the soldiers had to decide between their morals or the decision of the state in the s of the Jews. The third and final central theme is the position of woman. This is brought up several times in Antigone. Creon feels that woman are subordinate to men and should never be placed as high as men. This is also evident in present times because even now women do not have the same opportunities as men do although women have come a long way in just this century. There will always be tragic heroes in any society. They are usually high-profile people who rise and fall in the public eye. Hopefully, those of us who watch their stories unfold can learn from their experiences by debating the merits of the decisions a one-time hero made to render him/her tragic. The presence of a tragic hero is evident in modern society because even now we have people who are examples of tragic hero’s.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The recent advance in gene manipulation and gene therapy essays

The recent advance in gene manipulation and gene therapy essays This essay will show how the recent advances in technology have improved genetic engineering and gene therapy techniques. Genetic engineering will be explained regarding its use for gene diagnosis, drug synthesis and the production of vaccines. The influences of gene therapy on certain illnesses will be researched and social and ethical issues on genetic engineering and its use for therapies will be evaluated. Genetic engineering is the subject of many debates. It involves altering the genotype of an organism. There is some argument about what actually constitutes genetic engineering but, in general, it means taking a gene, or genes, from one organism and inserting them into another. This may be done for a number of reasons. It may be used to produce a desirable characteristic in the target organism, it may be used in order to make the target organism produce useful substances that are easily harvested, it may be used to attempt to treat genetic diseases or it may be used to further research how genes may be controlled. Whatever the reason, the principles involved remain the same. The development of techniques for manipulating and transferring genes has opened up opportunities to use microorganisms to synthesise biological compounds on a large scale, to enhance food production and to introduce treatments for human genetic disorders The procedure for genetic engineering involves inserting genes into microbes. In the first step it is necessary to remove the target DNA from the cell. This can be done using a detergent such as Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate which disrupts the plasma and nuclear membrane. Once this is done, enzymes are used to break down proteins so that the DNA can be safely extracted. In the next step restriction endonuclease enzymes are used to cut the required gene out of the host DNA. However, this is not a random process. Each of these enzymes will recognize a specific sequence of DNA and only cleave ...

Monday, October 21, 2019

The Universe Essays (1255 words) - Physical Cosmology, Big Bang

The Universe Essays (1255 words) - Physical Cosmology, Big Bang The Universe It is always a mystery about how the universe began, whether if and when it will end. Astronomers construct hypotheses called cosmological models that try to find the answer. There are two types of models: Big Bang and Steady State. However, through many observational evidences, the Big Bang theory can best explain the creation of the universe. The Big Bang model postulates that about 15 to 20 billion years ago, the universe violently exploded into being, in an event called the Big Bang. Before the Big Bang, all of the matter and radiation of our present universe were packed together in the primeval fireballan extremely hot dense state from which the universe rapidly expanded.1 The Big Bang was the start of time and space. The matter and radiation of that early stage rapidly expanded and cooled. Several million years later, it condensed into galaxies. The universe has continued to expand, and the galaxies have continued moving away from each other ever since. Today the universe is still expanding, as astronomers have observed. The Steady State model says that the universe does not evolve or change in time. There was no beginning in the past, nor will there be change in the future. This model assumes the perfect cosmological principle. This principle says that the universe is the same everywhere on the large scale, at all times.2 It maintains the same average density of matter forever. There are observational evidences found that can prove the Big Bang model is more reasonable than the Steady State model. First, the redshifts of distant galaxies. Redshift is a Doppler effect which states that if a galaxy is moving away, the spectral line of that galaxy observed will have a shift to the red end. The faster the galaxy moves, the more shift it has. If the galaxy is moving closer, the spectral line will show a blue shift. If the galaxy is not moving, there is no shift at all. However, as astronomers observed, the more distance a galaxy is located from Earth, the more redshift it shows on the spectrum. This means the further a galaxy is, the faster it moves. Therefore, the universe is expanding, and the Big Bang model seems more reasonable than the Steady State model. The second observational evidence is the radiation produced by the Big Bang. The Big Bang model predicts that the universe should still be filled with a small remnant of radiation left over from the original violent explosion of the primeval fireball in the past. The primeval fireball would have sent strong shortwave radiation in all directions into space. In time, that radiation would spread out, cool, and fill the expanding universe uniformly. By now it would strike Earth as microwave radiation. In 1965 physicists Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson detected microwave radiation coming equally from all directions in the sky, day and night, all year.3 And so it appears that astronomers have detected the fireball radiation that was produced by the Big Bang. This casts serious doubt on the Steady State model. The Steady State could not explain the existence of this radiation, so the model cannot best explain the beginning of the universe. Since the Big Bang model is the better model, the existence and the future of the universe can also be explained. Around 15 to 20 billion years ago, time began. The points that were to become the universe exploded in the primeval fireball called the Big Bang. The exact nature of this explosion may never be known. However, recent theoretical breakthroughs, based on the principles of quantum theory, have suggested that space, and the matter within it, masks an infinitesimal realm of utter chaos, where events happen randomly, in a state called quantum weirdness.4 Before the universe began, this chaos was all there was. At some time, a portion of this randomness happened to form a bubble, with a temperature in excess of 10 to the power of 34 degrees Kelvin. Being that hot, naturally it expanded. For an extremely brief and short period, billionths of billionths of a second, it inflated. At the end of the period of inflation, the universe may have a diameter of a few centimetres. The temperature had cooled enough for particles of matter and antimatter to form, and they instantly destroy each other, producing fire and a thin haze of matter-apparently because slightly more matter than antimatter was formed.5 The fireball, and the smoke of its burning, was the universe at an age of trillionth of a second. The temperature of the expanding fireball dropped rapidly, cooling

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Cognates of Cognition

Cognates of Cognition Cognates of Cognition Cognates of Cognition By Mark Nichol Cognition is the use of mental processes such as learning, remembering, thinking, and understanding. It stems from the Latin verb cognoscere, meaning â€Å"become acquainted with.† Not every word with the letter string â€Å"c-o-g† is related, but quite a few are. Details about cognition’s cognates follow. But first, a look at the construction of the words. The syllable cog isn’t the basis of terms related to knowing and thinking; cognoscere consists of co- and gnoscere; that word means â€Å"come to know.† Know itself is cognate with gnoscere and the Greek verb gignÃ… skein- the basis of gnome, best known as the name of a subterranean dwarflike creature in folklore but also a synonym for maxim, and gnosis, a word referring to spiritual knowledge that is also the root of prognosis (literally, â€Å"foreknowledge†) and diagnosis, meaning â€Å"identification† or â€Å"analysis.† Cognate itself is not cognate with cognition: It means â€Å"related,† and stems from the Latin word nasci, meaning â€Å"to be born,† and is cognate with nascent (and native). Nor is cognomen, which means â€Å"nickname† or â€Å"additional name† and derives from the Latin noun nomen, meaning â€Å"name.† Interestingly, cogent, meaning â€Å"necessary† or â€Å"urgent,† and especially its cognate cogitation, which means â€Å"intent thought,† are also unrelated to cognition; they derive respectively from the Latin verb agere, meaning â€Å"drive,† and its frequentative (repeated or recurrent) form agitare, which is also the origin of agitate. Another word with a distinct etymology is cog, referring to a tooth on a wheel in a gear mechanism and probably borrowed from a Scandinavian language. Words in the cognoscere family in English include recognition (literally, â€Å"knowing again†) and precognition (literally, â€Å"knowing before†); the latter was the unusual ability of the Precogs in Steven Spielberg’s film Minority Report and the Philip K. Dick short story on which it is (loosely) based. Two other words that are related- unexpectedly so- are reconnaissance (â€Å"military survey†) and that word’s verb form, reconnoiter, both adopted from French but ultimately stemming from recognoscere, the Latin origin of recognize. Other relatives are cognizance (â€Å"awareness,† â€Å"acknowledgment,† or â€Å"responsibility†) and recognizance, derived from an earlier sense of reconnaissance (â€Å"acknowledgment†) and used in legal contexts in phrases such as â€Å"released on his own recognizance† to indicate that someone recognizes his obligation to appear in court at a later date. Connoisseur (â€Å"expert†), from French, and its Italian cousin cognoscente (which in English developed a separate sense of â€Å"someone in the know†) are also related, as are incognito (â€Å"unknown,† from Italian and referring to being in disguise or anonymous or using a false name) and â€Å"terra incognita† (literally, â€Å"unknown land†), taken directly from Latin. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:20 Types and Forms of Humor3 Types of Headings10 Terms for the Common People

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Structural form that is most suitable for an SHRM approach Essay

Structural form that is most suitable for an SHRM approach - Essay Example The changing face of the industrialized world has led to changing views of managing the workforce.The concepts governing human resource management have changed with changes in the industrialized world.As business operations have expanded from local to national and on to global markets,organizations are forced to operate in a fast-changing environment Competition, technological advancement, legal requirements, host-country expectations and a changing customer profile place pressure on the internal systems and processes. The organizational structure has undergone changes with the changing environment. The earlier bureaucratic structure with its mono-cultural working community that suited a limited market has given way to a variety of structures that seek to garner the best way to harness talent in a wider area and manage market expectations across cultures. The factors that affected the HRM concepts at work were primarily availability and negotiating power of labor and workforce cultur e. As markets expanded companies faced a need to restructure internally in an effort to maintain flexibility by utilizing the right type of talent to manage the external environment. The central concept of HRM relates to ‘flexibility, responsiveness, ownership of organizational problems†¦ empowerment†¦ commitment’ (Salaman, 2001, p. 157). Connecting SHRM with strategy and structure Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) may be considered to be an umbrella term for a set of practices and processes designed to ensure the appropriate use of talent to suit business needs. HR academicians and writers have put forth visions on the models of SHRM, business strategy and structure. Strategy is seen to mould structure and thereby the practices towards managing human resources. Sinclair-Hunt and Simms (2005, p. 4) refer to the external environment as a guiding factor behind strategy. The environment might require quick responses which requires the use of proactive th ought and vision; it may require short term responses that allow survival without greatly impacting the internal processes or it may call for the organization to ‘give in’. The demands of the environment determine the response which should ideally be aided by appropriate strategy and structure. Yet organizations struggle to develop an SHRM approach. Sims (2002, p. 34-36) points out that the linkage between SHRM and overall strategy must cross the first hurdle of drafting corporate strategy. Many times, organizations are hard put to define a larger strategy and prefer to focus on immediate events. The demand for continuing flexibility can make the creation of such a strategy a challenge in itself. Ferris, Rosen and Barnum (1995, p. 135) discuss how even the presence of a larger strategy does not lead to the linear creation of SHRM processes since by the time the implications are translated to HR processes, the environment has forced a change to strategy. Durai (2010, p.3 7-38) mentions the factors that interfere with the development of effective SHRM processes. Absence of support from top management in involving the HR practitioners making key decisions is a major factor. This often stems from the perception that HR is an administrative function Morton, Newall and Sparkes (2004, p. 52). The author believes it is incumbent for the HR department to highlight the business advantage it can provide while providing administrative efficiency. In the absence of a clear strategy is there no scope for a unified approach to the acquisition and management of talent? Strategic human resource management must be considered linked to the context of the business. An organization may not spell out strategy for a variety of reasons ranging from not seeing the need or not knowing how to not considering it relevant. The structure may continue to be hierarchical with speed provided by the adoption of technology. In such a case, business context guides the activities

Friday, October 18, 2019

Political science Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 10

Political science - Essay Example Another cause of political violence is the need to control rich resource areas and racial discrimination. During the Second World War Germany demonstrated this by invasion and subsequent conquer of Poland. The massacre of unknown number of Jews also referred to as the ‘holocaust† by Hitler was racial motivated political violence. Differing ideologies between sects can lead to political violence as it did during the great American civil war (Eickelmann, A., Nelson, E., & Lansford, 2005). While political violence is common in many countries, there are ways governments can limit it. In tribal, racially or religious motivated violence, promoting exchange between groups can be an effective means of limiting political violence among groups. The more two or three more groups interact the less likely the groups are going to engage in deadly violence. States can also concentrate on protecting individual freedom and rights to avoid the rise of rebels and insurgencies within the states. Perhaps the most important of all is for states to respect and ensure that justice and reconciliation prevail (Eickelmann et al., 2005). This is demonstrated by the impact the Truth and Reconciliation Commission Nelson Mandela formed at the end of apartheid in South Africa. For a long time people have been debating on the importance of the electoral systems designed to promote democracy and their invaluable roles in the states that apply them as their electoral systems. While most people agree and differ on their preferred electoral system, it is no secret of the importance of the existence of electoral system in democratic governments. Proportional representation and a single member district are two varying electoral systems, used in different states to select a body of members of an assembly or a legislature A single member district is an electoral area that elects one office holder through

Implementation plan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Implementation plan - Essay Example The number one step for implementing the proposal is to obtain approval from the leaders in the health sector. This will be very important, as you can be sure of their full support. It is always vital that the leaders give you the go ahead in order to proceed with the implementation of the plan. The leaders are responsible for linking you up with the authorities in charge of regulating the health care provision in the country. It also helps in ensuring that you acquire the resources required for successful implementation of the plan. The best strategy to win the approval of the leaders is to enlighten them on the importance of the plan and the massive benefits it will bring on the target population. Equipping them with the full information about the whole plan is vital if they have to give their support for the plan implementation. A written request about the plan to the leaders is necessary as opposed to word of mouth. The leaders must in turn reply in writing. For the members of st aff, seeking for their involvement in implementing the plan will be an easy task once the leadership approve. Once the leadership of the organization gives the go ahead for the plant implementation, the staff is most likely to follow suit. Upon approval by both the leadership and fellow members of staff, the plan can then progress to the next stage. As described in the introductory part, Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) have consistently grown in prevalence among patients who have indwelling catheters. CAUTI increases cost of medication in hospitals and accounts for a higher percentage for mortality and morbidity (AACN, 2015). CAUTI can be preventable through adoption of viable precautionary measures. One of the major contributing factors to CAUTI is the extended duration of catheterization as well as insertion of the catheters without adequate reason as to their requirements. CAUTI results from three major aspects. One is the

Thursday, October 17, 2019

DQ52 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

DQ52 - Essay Example The business needs to understand its overhead and should be looking at this from a fixed cost perspective. If the wage rates are fluctuating in this or different departments, the element of fixed costs is removed and makes this practice unpredictable for maximizing the reporting of financial health. Measuring overhead has to do with the health of the operating environment which relies on understanding costs that are generally not variable. These costs can include administration, groundskeeping, machining and assembly (Horngren et al, 2008). When looking at administration overhead, it is going to be practical to want to know if their wages are fixed. If wage rates continue to fluctuate, deciding where to allocate the total overhead costs is going to be highly difficult if the goal is to maximize financial reporting data to show better corporate health at the accounting level. For example, the monthly or weekly groundskeeping maintenance required could be looked at as a fixed cost, especially if contracted at x dollars per month/week. This overhead cost would be a necessity as part of operations and could be predicted for financial reporting based on the contract cost negotiated throughout the business operating year. Direct-labor cost would be an appropriate cost allocation opti on here if the wages, such as for administration, remained constant. This method would also give the senior business leaders more accurate overhead costs, if they were needed, for strategic review or for assessing the health of certain divisions. Direct labor costs should be seen as costs which are directly incurred by the organization and should have an element of predictability surrounding them. It would be a guess that most real-life organizations do not have varying wages for certain things such as administration, unless they had structured some sort of bonus system where wages were subject to bi-annual

Multicultural Education Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 2

Multicultural Education - Essay Example The immediate adjacent surrounding environment to the school consists of pristinely developed housing of what appears to be sober members of the community. The area is cosmopolitan as it contains a diverse collection of individual not only native to the area but also of international descent. The majority of who are whites, Hispanic, migrants from the Asian pacific and African Americans in that order. The number of religious institutions in the area area is many and hence it would seem that the community is relatively peaceful if not cohesive. A fairly large number of individuals live in poverty and thereby getting access to essential reading material could be a challenge. The number of religious institutions however can offer reprieve to this troubled souls by offering any scholarship programs that they may have started. The student- teacher ratio if favorable as one teacher can easily cater for the needs of 14 students and address their learning needs comprehensively. The language barrier in the area is likely to be unfavorable to the natives of the area as they speak that is not the language of instruction in the school hence making students understand what they are taught. Recreational facilities which include the YWCA are available to the students to keep fit through exercise and is affordable to the majority since it is a non- profit making organization.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

DQ52 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

DQ52 - Essay Example The business needs to understand its overhead and should be looking at this from a fixed cost perspective. If the wage rates are fluctuating in this or different departments, the element of fixed costs is removed and makes this practice unpredictable for maximizing the reporting of financial health. Measuring overhead has to do with the health of the operating environment which relies on understanding costs that are generally not variable. These costs can include administration, groundskeeping, machining and assembly (Horngren et al, 2008). When looking at administration overhead, it is going to be practical to want to know if their wages are fixed. If wage rates continue to fluctuate, deciding where to allocate the total overhead costs is going to be highly difficult if the goal is to maximize financial reporting data to show better corporate health at the accounting level. For example, the monthly or weekly groundskeeping maintenance required could be looked at as a fixed cost, especially if contracted at x dollars per month/week. This overhead cost would be a necessity as part of operations and could be predicted for financial reporting based on the contract cost negotiated throughout the business operating year. Direct-labor cost would be an appropriate cost allocation opti on here if the wages, such as for administration, remained constant. This method would also give the senior business leaders more accurate overhead costs, if they were needed, for strategic review or for assessing the health of certain divisions. Direct labor costs should be seen as costs which are directly incurred by the organization and should have an element of predictability surrounding them. It would be a guess that most real-life organizations do not have varying wages for certain things such as administration, unless they had structured some sort of bonus system where wages were subject to bi-annual

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Clinical Chemistry Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Clinical Chemistry - Lab Report Example These tests may be used to monitor the progress of kidney dysfunction, to evaluate kidney function prior to some procedures, such as a CT (computed tomography) scan, to calculate a creatinine clearance: measures how effectively the kidneys are filtering small molecules like creatinine out of the blood. Urine creatinine may also be used with a variety of other urine tests as a sort of correction factor. Serum creatinine is used to calculate the estimated glomerular filtration rate (EGFR), which is used as a screening test to look for evidence of kidney damage. ("Creatinine") 21. The chemical formula of cocaine is C17H21NO4 , and Crack is [C16H20NO4 ] is very similar indeed. They both contain same number of carbon atoms and oxygen but while regular cocaine has a dissociated NH+ and Cl-, Crack cocaine is an amine because it contains a nitrogen atom bonded to three carbons. 22. Cocaine Hydrochloride can be converted into crack by dissolving powder cocaine is dissolved in a mixture of water and sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). Baking soda with chemical formula NaHCO3 is now most often used as a base rather than ammonia for reasons of lowered stench and toxicity. The mixture is boiled to separate out the solid, and then it's cooled. The solid is then dried and cut up into small nuggets, or "rocks." (Watson, n.a). The reaction is proceeds as follows: 23.

Monday, October 14, 2019

The Palestine Liberation Organization Essay Example for Free

The Palestine Liberation Organization Essay Palestine is a historic region in the Middle East comprising of Israel and the Israeli occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip. The Palestine Liberation Organization, a political entity, had been attempting to establish a separate state for the Palestinian Arabs. In the year 1948, Israel was created in that region. This emergence of the Israeli state and subsequent wars between it and several Arab countries, served to displace a large number of Palestinians. In the year 1964, the Palestine Liberation Organization or PLO was founded, in order to represent the demands of Palestinians for the creation of a separate state for them. At that point in time, Arab military forces were singularly unsuccessful in defeating Israel, in the Six Day War of 1967. Under those circumstances, the PLO emerged as an alternative power, and gained regional and international importance (Stein, 2007). A deep rooted hatred has existed between the PLO and Israel, and this lasted for several years. However, between 1993 and 1998, both the PLO and Israel entered into several agreements, which transferred all Palestinian towns and cities that were under the control of Israel to the Palestinian administration. Moreover, the Israelis transferred Arab dominant regions in the West Bank and Gaza Strip to Palestine. In accordance with these agreements, the Palestinian National Authority or PNA was formed to govern these transferred Palestinian areas. In the year 1994 the PNA took complete control over the administrative and negotiating roles of the PLO, with respect to these newly transferred territories. As such, the PLO remained a protector of Palestinian interests in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. It also represents Palestinian interests in international agreements and treaties. The PLO and Israel have continued to remain adversaries, despite diplomatic negotiations between them (Stein, 2007). The fundamental objective of the PLO was the destruction of Israel. In the year 1969, Yasser Arafat became the chairman of the PLO. In the year 1970, Jordan expelled the PLO from its territory, and the PLO relocated itself in Lebanon and established its base of operations there and started to attack Israel. It attacked Israel in 1978 and in 1982. In 1982, it withdrew from Beirut and moved to Tunisia. Yasser Arafat’s leadership of the PLO was challenged several times before, during and after the Intifada. However, he remained the supreme leader of PLO. In 1988, Arafat gave up terrorism and discontinued terrorist attacks against Israel. Subsequently, the PLO was recognized as the umbrella group that represented Palestinian interests and the Palestinian state. Arafat became the leader of the Palestine National Authority in 1996 (Palestine Liberation Organization, 2001). The PLO comprises of three important branches; and these are the fifteen member Executive Committee, which includes representatives from the fedayeen; the Central Committee comprising of sixty members; and the Palestine National Council, which has five hundred and ninety – nine members. The PLO has several departments and agencies, which provide military services, health services, information to the public, finance, social welfare, education, and other administrative services. After the creation of the Palestine National Authority in 1994, it has taken over the duties and responsibilities of the Palestinian people, in the West Bank and Gaza Strip (Stein, 2007). The PLO was formed, in order to fight against Israel and to compel it to withdraw from Palestine. However, it was unable to unite all the Palestinian groups at that time. The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, which was under the leadership of George Habash, remained an independent group, and Yasser Arafat of al-Fatah became the supreme leader of the PLO, which launched several terrorist operations against Israel. It killed eleven Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympics in 1972. In the year 1982, Lebanon expelled PLO from its country. In Tunisia, in 1988, the PLO established a parliament in exile for the newly declared state of Palestine. In 1988, Arafat launched peace and diplomacy initiatives, as a prelude to negotiations with Israel. The United States supported the PLO in these efforts, and in 1993, Arafat and Yitzhak Rabin signed an agreement, after secret negotiations. Thereafter, the PLO relinquished terrorism and honored the right of Israel to exist as a separate state, subsequent to Israel’s withdrawal of its forces from the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. In 1995, the Palestinians achieved independence and autonomy. The peace process suffered a setback, because the Hamas continued to attack Israel and the latter failed to withdraw its troops. In 1998, the PLO and Israel had signed a land – for – security pact. In 2000, US peace efforts ended in failure, and there was unending violence on both sides (Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), 2003). The PLO is composed of several groups, and each of these has its own founders and organizational framework. The leaders of some of these groups had challenged the leadership of Arafat. Some groups had been branded as rejectionist groups as they refused to recognize the September 13, 1993 PLO – Israel accord. They also opposed interim agreements entered into by the PLO and Israel. These rejectionist groups include the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine or PFLP, led by George Habash, which is a Marxist group. Subsequent to the 1993 Israel – Palestinian Declaration of Principles agreement, the PFLP withdrew from the PLO. Another organization was the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – General Command or the PFLP-GC that had been founded by Ahmad Jibril. It was a Damascus based group, with a pro – Syrian faction, which withdrew from the PLO. Nayif Hawatmeh had founded the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine or DFLP, a partner of the PLO coalition. It was a Marxist organization that had joined the PLO in the year 1999. Moreover, the Palestine Liberation Front or PLF, led by Abu Abbas, continued in the PLO coalition (Katzman, 2002). The PFLP, the PFLP-GC, and the PLF were extremist groups that had indulged in terrorist acts against Israel, subsequent to the 1993 Declaration of Principles. These three extremist groups were termed the Foreign Terrorist Organizations. The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, DFLP, was categorized as a Foreign Terrorist Organization by the State Department in its first FTO list published in 1997. However, at the behest of Arafat, and after it had accepted the peace with Israel; it was excluded from the list of FTO’s in 1999. Other coalition groups in the PLO that were not branded as FTOs included the As – Saiqa, the Arab Liberation Front, which was a pro – Iraq faction group, the Popular Struggle Front, the People’s Party, formerly known as the Palestinian Communist Party, and the Democratic Union that was known by its initials FIDA (Katzman, 2002). The timeline of important events in the history of the PLO – Israel relationship has been appended below: December 1968: On the 28th of December 1968, Israeli commandoes attacked the Beirut International Airport. In this operation, more than twelve airplanes were heavily damaged, while some of them were completely destroyed. This operation was launched in retaliation to the attacks on an Israeli civilian flight at the Athens airport in Greece. In this attack, two Palestinian nationals were charged with having attacked an airplane in Athens. This attack had resulted in the death of an Israeli passenger (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). November 1969:Â  Yasser Arafat and the Lebanese commander – in – chief, Emile Bustani, met in Cairo and ratified an agreement. Under the terms of that agreement Lebanon had to recognize the Palestinian revolution. That agreement allowed Palestinians and the Lebanese to jointly fight against Israel without compromising Lebanon’s welfare and sovereignty. Although the agreement was made for twenty years of joint struggle, Lebanon escinded it in 1987 (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). 1970-1971: Jordan expelled the PLO following a severe battle in their country, which had led to the death of thousands of people. Subsequently, the PLO shifted its base of operations to Lebanon and mounted attacks against Israel from Lebanon. An extremist Palestinian terrorist faction group, Black September, joined the PLO coalition. In September 1970, Jordan initiated a military crackdown on Palestinians (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). 1972: The terrorist group Black September attacked Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympics in Germany. In these attacks two Israelis were killed and nine Israeli athletes taken as hostages. The terrorists demanded the release of Palestinian prisoners in exchange for these hostages. Israel refused to accept these conditions and a counter attack was mounted by the West German commandoes, during which four terrorists and one policeman were killed (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). April 1973: In a covert operation, the future Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, led a team of Israeli commandoes, in women’s attire and killed three prominent PLO leaders in Beirut (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). 975: There was fierce civil war in Lebanon between the Palestinians and pro – Palestinian Lebanese militant groups, and Lebanon’s Christian militant groups. They fought each other for fifteen years, until 1990, when the civil war ended officially (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). 1976: Syria deployed its peacekeeping forces in Lebanon to assist Lebanese authorities to end the war. The Syrian fo rces remained in Lebanon for thirty years, until April 2005 (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). March 1978:Â  The PLO attacked a bus in northern Israel, and in retaliation, the Israeli forces entered Lebanon and pushed the PLO forces far from the border. The UN Security Council ratified a resolution, which instructed Israel to immediately withdraw its forces from Lebanon. Accordingly Israel withdrew its forces, and Major General Saad Haddad established a security zone of twelve miles wide, all along the border. This security zone was meant to prevent Trans – border attacks on Israel (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). September 1978:Â  The US President Jimmy Carter was instrumental in bringing about the Camp David Accord. This Accord led to the establishment of a peace treaty between Israel and Egypt. It also provided sufficient groundwork for a similar peace treaty between Israel, Lebanon and other neighboring Arab states (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). July 17, 1981: Israeli forces attacked the PLO headquarters in West Beirut, and this operation claimed more than three hundred civilian lives. The United States once again intervened and established a cease – fire agreement between Israel, the PLO and Syria. At that particular time, Syrian troops were deployed in Lebanon (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). 1982: Until the 6th of June 1982 a cease – fire was maintained. It was broken when Israel attacked Lebanon with a sixty thousand army. This was in retaliation to the killing of Israeli’s ambassador to Britain. However, Arafat and the leaders of the PLO escaped from Lebanon and settled in Tunisia. They remained there until 1994 and then moved on to Gaza (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). On 14th September, Bashir Gemayel, the Lebanese president – elect, was assassinated before his swearing in ceremony. He had the support of Israel, and subsequent to his assassination, Israeli troops entered West Beirut and engaged in what could be deemed to be genocide, in which more than eight hundred Palestinian refugees were mercilessly killed by the Lebanese Christian militant groups in the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps. The world community accused Israel for its failure to stop the genocide. During this period, a fundamentalist Shiite Muslim extremist group Hezbollah emerged in Beirut, the Bekka Valley and southern Lebanon. Hezbollah was sponsored by Iran, whose Revolutionary Guards had imparted adequate training and had provided weapons to the Hezbollah. Syria also, lent its support to the Hezbollah, whose fundamental aim was to establish a Shiite Islamic state in Lebanon. Moreover, it aimed to expel Israel and the US military from the region (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). April 18, 1983: Hezbollah launched a number of suicide bombers against the US embassy in West Beirut. In this operation nearly sixty – three people were killed. This attack served as a portent regarding the future attacks against Western nations (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). May 17, 1983: The US achieved an agreement between Lebanon and Israel, and both these nations ratified the agreement, which sought the immediate withdrawal of Israeli troops from Lebanon under a conditional withdrawal of Syrian forces. However, Syria refused to accept this agreement (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). October 23, 1983:Â  A suicide bomber from the Hezbollah penetrated into the headquarters of the US Marine and French forces in Beirut and detonated the bomb on his person. This bombing resulted in the death of two hundred and ninety – eight people. Of these, two hundred and forty – one were US Marines and other military staff. Following this attack, the US withdrew its forces from Lebanon (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). January 18, 1984: Malcolm Kerr, President of the American University of Beirut was assassinated (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). March 1984: Lebanon rescinded the May 17, 1983 peace accord, consequent to increasing pressure from Syria (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). September 20, 1984: The US embassy annex in East Beirut was heavily bombarded, resulting in the death of twenty – three people in the attack (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). June 1985: Israel withdrew its troops from Lebanon, all the same it controlled the twelve mile wide security zone along the southern border until May 2000 (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). 1990: The fifteen year civil war in Lebanon was officially ended (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). July 1993: Israel attacked southern Lebanon for a week, with a view to end the attacks waged by the Hezbollah on several towns in Israel (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). April 1996: There was fierce fighting between Israel and Hezbollah for sixteen days. In this battle, nearly one hundred and thirty – seven people were killed. Most of the casualties were Lebanese civilians (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). May 2000:Â  Israel withdrew its troops from southern Lebanon and the United Nations declared the Blue Line to be the actual border between these two nations (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). September 2003: Israel warplanes bombarded southern Lebanon, in retaliation to the launching of antiaircraft missiles by the Hezbollah against Israeli airplanes flying over that region (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). October 2003: Israel and Lebanon exchanged gunfire in the Shebaa Farms, which was a disputed area (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). February 14, 2005: Rafik Hariri, the former Lebanese Prime Minister was assassinated by militants, which pressurized Syria to withdraw its troops from Lebanon. In April, Syria withdrew all its troops from Lebanon (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006). July 2006: Militants belonging to Hezbollah entered Israel and killed three Israeli soldiers. They abducted two soldiers and demanded an exchange of prisoners. Israel refused to accept their offer. Subsequently, five more Israeli soldiers were killed in an ambush. The response of Israel was a blitzkrieg, and Israel blockaded naval routes and heavily bombarded hundreds of Lebanese targets. It also bombed Beirut’s airport and the headquarters of Hezbollah in southern Beirut. In response to these Israeli attacks, Hezbollah launched attacks using rockets on northern Israeli cities. This battle resulted in the demise of hundreds of Lebanese civilians. Subsequently, Israel conducted a two week military campaign in Gaza in retaliation to the abduction of its soldiers (Timeline: Decades of conflict in Lebanon, Israel, 2006).

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Analyzing Angela Carters Feminist Fairy Tales English Literature Essay

Analyzing Angela Carters Feminist Fairy Tales English Literature Essay It is important to establish early on that there is no simple definition of what a fairy tale is; the simplest place to start is to explain why theyre called fairy tales at all. Taken from the French phrase contes de fà ©es a title used by women writers in the French salons in the 17th century for stories written as narratives for passing on wisdom to young women it was translated as tales of fairies. The first to use the phrase was Madame DAulnoy in 1697 as the title to her collection of stories, but was later used by the more familiar Brothers Grimm. Before that time fairy tales existed only in the oral tradition, a highly elusive medium of story-telling, which does not lend itself to consistency, often leading to each country, region, and even person having their own version of the same basic tale. Little is known about the history of fairy tales, only that from the 17th century they began to emerge as a popular literary convention and broke down into two main schools; that of Perrault and his pure French tales, and the Brothers Grimm, who concerned themselves with only authentic German folklore. Throughout the 18th and 19th century their popularity grew, with each culture apportioning its own unique narrator, most famously in the guises of Mother Bunch, Mother Goose, and Gamma Gettel. To speak loosely of fairy tales, they are a subgenre of folklore, but Lane argues: Although Lane has made some very sweeping generalisations about what a fairy tale it not, this is because, as Tolkien puts it, faerie [tales] cannot be caught by a net of words; for it is one of its qualities to be indescribable (Tolkien 1965:10). As Ive illustrated, those who have spent their academic careers trying to define what a fairy tale is have agreed that it contains certain elements, but the problem lies in that they cant agree which ones. For my purposes I am going to accept Thompsons definition: A tale of some length involving a succession of motifs or episodes. It moves in an unreal world without definite locality or definite creature and is filled with the marvellous. (Thompson 1977: 8) The fairy tale is a desirable form of literature for authors to manipulate. With its strict confines, extensive use of stereotypes, accessibility, and moral framework it can be used to create an environment within which authors can explore their own ideas and ideals. Angela Carter is such an author; with the The Bloody Chamber being, essentially, a feminist re-evaluation of the predominantly masculine-dominated fairy tales as presented by the Brothers Grimm. Although the Brothers Grimm were amongst the first to preserve fairy tales in the writing they were considerably re-worked from their original oral counterparts in order to make them more acceptable to society. Fairy tales began as a female-orientated tradition when Les Cabinet des Fà ©es was published over half the authors were women, whose tales offered gratifications that were already [] considered feminine: dreams of love as well as the sweets of quick and capital revenge (Warner 1996: xii-xiv). When the Brothers Grimm, and others, transferred the oral tales in written ones they transposed of an essentially feminine form and replaced it was a masculine one, as Holbeck observes, men and women often tell the same tales in characteristically different ways (Holbeck 1987). This tradition has been carried through to the 20th century, with Disney adaptations relying on the damsel in distress, with the inevitable Prince Charming character to rescue her (although recent productions such as Enchanted and the Shrek trilogy have been a movement away from such archetypes). The Bloody Chamber concerns itself with those changes and calls them to attention by: heightening the intertextuality of her narratives, making them into allegories that explore how sexual behaviour and gender roles are not universal, but are, like other forms of social interaction, culturally determined. (Kaiser 1994) It is a collection of short stories that extract the latent content from traditional stories (Carter in John Haffendens Novelist in Interview) and create new ones from a womans perspective, an exploration of the journey between girlhood and womanhood with all the trappings that entails. It is a de-Bowdlerisation of Grimms contaminated exercise of patriarchal power towards the pure tales of Perrault and, more importantly for Carter, Bruno Bettelheim, whose books, Uses of Enchantment, has been hailed by a holy grail for the understanding of fairy tales. Bettelheim was a distinguished psychoanalyst who applied his writing to the written fairy tale, concluding that they were a way for children to comfortably deal with separation anxiety and essential in the development of the unconscious; let the Fairy Tale speak to his unconscious, give body to his unconscious anxieties and relieve them without this ever coming to conscious awareness (Bettelheim 1977: 15). Bettelheims readings of fairy tales lie strongly in Freudian theory. Freud is most well-known for his championing of the oedipal complex, wherein a boy has desire for his mother and competes with the father for affection, or a girl who has desire for her father, sparking a rivalry with the mother. The latter is also referred to as the Electra complex, though Freud often disagreed on the existence of a female counter-part. In his book, Bettelheim states that: Oedipal difficulties and how the individual solves them are central to the way his personality and human relations unfold. By camouflaging the oedipal predicament, or by only subtly intimating the entanglements, fairy tales permit us to draw our own conclusions when the time is propitious for our gaining a better understanding of these problems. (Bettelheim 1977: 201) This excerpt comes from his essay on Snow White, which Bettelheim argues is a perfect fairy tale version of the oedipal conflict between mothers and daughters. Certainly, the version he and Carter, in her tale The Snow Child, use heightens the oedipal tensions through its simplicity (Kaiser 1994). Carter furthers this by manipulating the popular themes and underpinning them with the notion of desire, a key theme throughout The Bloody Chamber. Colours are incredibly important in the Gothic genre, and due to the nature of Carters fairy tales, they can certainly be described as such. Carters count asks for a girl as white as snow [] red as blood [] black as that birds feather (Carter 2006: 105) without any appropriation of those colours, it is only after the girl appears that Carter redistributes them in the traditional style of white skin, red lips, black hair (Carter 2006: 105). Those three colours continually appear throughout all of Carters short stories and are used in a highly symbolic fashion. White is traditionally seen as the colour of purity, innocence, and wholeness, but red, the symbol of love, signals passion and sexual desire, whilst black represents death, destruction, and the decent into the unconscious. If we transfer these attributes to the Counts wishes, it is plausible to conclude that the Count is imagining a daughter who embodies all those things; a virgin who awakens sexual desire in him on the unconsc ious level. In doing so, he gives the girl multiple facets, and an ambiguous quality she is sometimes pure and perfect, sometimes passionate and sexual, or negative and deadly. Three sides, three colours, three aspects of the human soul. The theme of colours is similarly extended to the Count and Countess note that Carter provides the colours of their horses. The Count sits upon a gray mare (Carter 2006: 105) the only other colour mentioned in the tale, noticeably different to the surrounding contrast. If we see the Count as a representation of society, then the greyness symbolises a lack of self-examination, of stepping back from the coloured representations apparent in the rest of the scene, to which Carter is now attempting to hold a mirror up to. The counts horse also provides a back-drop for the Countess, giving significance to her riding a black one (Carter 2006: 105); she is also seen wearing glittering pelts of black foxes and black shining boots with scarlet heels (Carte r 2006: 105). My interpretation of her attire is one that suggests that to the Count his wife no longer represents the idea of purity (the absence of white), and that he has very little sexual desire for, as the colour red is contained to the lowest part of her body her heels. Instead, she represents the Counts mortality, of getting older, and what Klein describes as a bad object that a child will seek to expel by projecting negative emotions towards it, shown by the excessive use of black. This is highlighted by his wishes for the child, who is predominantly snow white when stark naked (Carter 2006: 105) the good object that a child seeks to join with and keep safe from the unpleasant influence of bad objects. Carters Count lifted her up and sat her in front of him on his saddle and thrust his virile member into the dead girl (Carter 2006: 105-106) perfect representations of that same joining and protecting. As mentioned, the oedipal complex is one concerned with transference not only of emotions, but, in the case of The Snow Child, a physical transference through clothing. In a similar style to the presence of the Counts grey horse, we are not given a description of the Counts clothing, giving strength to my argument that he is a representation of society, and therefore not clothed because it is the provider of clothes, or labels (e.g. mother, wife), for everyone else. Unlike the Brothers Grimm version, Carter does not have the Count decide between his wife and his daughter, instead she has him display his authority over them through the attribution of material constructs. The Countess, presumably acquiring her title from marriage, is wholly defined by her husband her title, her clothes, her horse, all representations of the social constructions of wealth and nobility. When the Countess is replaced in her husbands desires by the girl there is a transference of clothing, and of those s ymbols of society, the furs sprang off the Countesss shoulders and twined around the naked girl [] then her boots leapt off the Countesss feet and on to the girls legs (Carter 2006: 105). Here we see the deconstruction of the modern women a disrobing of the masculine confines imposed upon the Countess. Kaiser points out that it is a sign of their mutual dependence on his favour, the furs, the boots, and jewels fly off the Countess, onto the girl, and back again depending on the whims of the Count (Kaiser 1994). During the tale there is always a woman who is naked, drawing attention to the semantic field of clothes when women are not dressed they are reverted to a representation of Nature, in direct opposition to the man as culture, which in turn makes them appear vulnerable. In response to this criticism, Kaiser continues that although some feminist theorists claim to find a kind of liberation in the position of women as other in phallogocentric culture, Carter finds the situation morecomplex and more troubling (Kaiseer 1994).This can be seen reflection in the ambiguous ending Carter has created, when the Countess exclaims It bites! is she rejecting female sexuality through the symbol of eternal feminine sexuality of the rose? is she rejecting love itself? Or simply her husbands and therefore mens desires? Bacchilega suggests that the Countess recognizes the myth of the vagina dentate for what it is (Bacchilega 1988: 18). The ending leaves a lot to be desired for traditional readers of fairy tales, without the typical happily ever after finish Carter leaves the tale with no promise of happiness and it remains open for individual interpretation. To re-address my original question, one of Carters most avid critics, Patricia Duncker read the ending of The Bloody Chamber as carrying an uncompromisingly feminist message, whilst the other tales merely recapitulate patriarchal patterns of behaviour. Duncker is right in her reading of the texts as remaining within the patriarchal sphere of thought, but as Kaiser parallels with my own opinion what Dunkcer perceives as an inconsistent application of feminist principles is, I believe, merely a reflection of Carters project in this collection, to portray sexuality as a culturally relative phenomenon (Kaiser 1994). It is my personal belief that Duncker is not in possession of a sense of humour, or merely cannot grasp Carters sense of irony in her insistence on staying within the already accepted boundaries, in order to question the nature of reality one must move from a strongly grounded base in what constitutes material reality (Carter 1997: 38). With The Bloody Chamber Carter has conc erned herself not simply with pointing out the problems with conventional patriarchal views of gender, but rather has created a series of different representations, that although dont directly challenge the traditional fairy tales, they provide alternative models. She does not, as the title suggests, capitulate the idea of a masculine-dominated or phallaogocentric representation of the fairy tale, but rather highlights the single-mindedness of those tellings by displaying stories with the same basic building blocks that have hugely different influences. Ours is a highly individualised culture, with great faith in the work of art as a unique one-off, and the artist as an original, a godlike and inspired creator of unique one-offs. But fairy tales are not like that, nor are their makers. Who first invented meatballs? In what country? Is there a definite recipe for potato soup? Think in terms of the domestic arts. This is how I make potato soup. (Carter 1987: 3) The culinary allegory serves her purpose of exemplifying the fairy tale; a recipe will seldom have an individual source and are prepared in a multitude of ways, varying with the ingredients available and the person preparing it, evolving over time, just as female subcultures adapted to suit personal, cultural, and historical needs.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

The Field of Nursing Essay -- Professional Careers Occupations

The Field of Nursing Why do women decide to be in the nursing field? There are different reasons to why women decide to become nurses. Nurses support health, put a stop to diseases, and help the patients deal with their illnesses. The nurse is an advocate and health educationalist for patients, family unit, and communities. They observe, put emphasis, and record the symptoms, reactions, and improvement of a patient. A nurse is a person who endows with medical treatment and help people of all ages to get good health. A nurse is a person that worries about the physical and psychosocial portion of the illness. Nurses have a wide assortment of different fields that they can choose to work in. Inside the career of nursing, women can make a decision from a wide number of occupations. Women can get into the legal consultant field, or to become a Forensic nurse. Several women do not know that these fields of occupations are even out there. Even though a legal nurse consultant does not work directly with the patients, they are â€Å"behind the scenes working on medical cases, and legal cases†. They can make an enormous difference in the â€Å"quality of health care patients acquire†. (Marquand, 2003) The responsibility of a legal consultant does vary according to their â€Å"interests, and their background†. They can seek employment in a â€Å"self-governing practice, or for Insurances Company†. They can also work in â€Å"toxic torts, product liability, or in medical malpractices†. They â€Å"analysi...