Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Education Dialogue Essay Essay

There are many people in today’s society that believe going to school is essential in order to live a rewarding life. What people don’t understand is the fact that there are many different aspects of education and some are more important than others. Although practical knowledge is important to learn, there is a big difference between schooling and educating. There are many elements of education that stimulate growth and are necessary in order to fulfill ones learning potential. The purpose of education is to help humans grow and mature intellectually. Education should foster creativity and the students should be able to develop their potential by believing they are capable individuals. Education should also let the student’s curiosity and interests direct their studies. It is important that the learning environment is positive and will help the students develop their set of morals and characteristics such as respect, loyalty, and kindness. Boredom is the common condition of most students in any type of school. This could be because the teachers are boring which makes it nearly impossible for the students to be interested in what is being taught. The boredom may also be caused by the lack of imagination and creativeness in the classroom. It is important that education fosters creativity and lets the students express themselves individually. â€Å"The aim.., is simply to reduce as many individuals as possible to the same safe level, to breed and train a standardized citizenry, to put down dissent and originality.† (Gatto, p.3) People would agree with Gatto in the sense that schools generally put down originality and confine students to standardized education. Many schools group students together based on test scores and proficiency levels and students start looking like robots as they go day to day in the same routine. In elementary school, I expressed my creativity in so many ways; finger painting, writing stories, coloring. It was difficult when I got into middle school and began taking classes that were strict in a sense that all I did was sit there, write notes, and regurgitate my new knowledge the best I could. It’s safe to say when I entered high school; I realized how much of my creative self I’d lost. I got so accustomed to taking notes, reading textbooks, and taking tests on scantron paper. I took a creative writing  class my freshman year in high school. When I entered the class, I didn’t think I would be able to write creatively because I had just spent the last three years writing hypothesis and formal essays. Thankfully, there was a spark in my brain that lit and developed a passion for creative writing. Throughout the year, I wrote poems, short stories, prose pieces, I even attempted writing a chapter book. I discovered a creative side of myself that had been shaded out in middle school. The next year, I took Creative Writing 2 as an elective. I created poetry pieces that I was very proud of and I decided to enter one into a statewide writing competition. The poem was titled Magnolia and it won me second place. I had finally found something that expressed who I am, I loved writing and I was good at it. I was afraid that school would make me feel jaded and unable to express the things I feel and the thoughts I think. Albert Einstein once said, â€Å"Everybody is a genus. But if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing it is stupid.† This quote has been in the back of my mind throughout my years of schooling. Everyone is different; everyone has different skills, knowledge, and abilities. It is important that students understand that just because they may not excel in math or science courses, they may be outstanding in something else. â€Å"Schools are meant to tag the unfit—with poor grades, remedial placement, and other punishments—clearly enough that their peers will accept them as inferior and effectively bar them from the reproductive sweepstakes.† (Gatto, p.4) Standardized tests do a magnificent job of making students feel stupid or inferior to other students who score higher on their aptitude tests. Schools and tests should not make people think less of themselves because of poor scores. Throughout high school, I did well in my classes. I got my homework done on time, I quizzed fine, but when it came time to take tests; I froze and forgot all knowledge previously put in my head. Although I may not be a very good test-taker, I believe I have an important set of skills that cannot and will not be defined by scores and grades. The learning process begins on day one of life. Growing up means learning about yourself, your surroundings, and how to put the two together. In the early years of education, children develop their character and discover their set of moral values. I think it is so important that in any learning environment there is respect and kindness being encouraged. People learn at a young age how they are going to interact with others. It is necessary that young people learn how to be kind hearted and understanding. Education should give students, a sense of right and wrong, good and bad. It should teach people the importance of respect, trust, and compassion. Character traits are developed in the early years of education so it is crucial that the learning environment encourages positive character and makes it possible for the student to expand a strong sense of morals. The world is a tough place but it is important to teach young people how significant it is to have compassion for other people. Today’s education system is a controversial issue because there is so much to be taught and some topics never get touched in public school. Education should let students develop themselves creatively, let the student’s curiosity and interests direct their studies, and it should help the students develop their character, morals, and teach the significance of compassion and respect. Education has many different aspects that should, all in all, stimulate growth and fulfill one’s learning potential by letting them discover and express themselves. Standardized education can be toxic because it groups students together and does not leave room for creativity and open-mindedness. Education should inspire students to be individuals with positive mindsets and outlooks on life.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Pow 12 Imp 1

1. To find my conclusions I had to think about each part of the problem. When you know that one thing means you go on to the next part. When you figure out what that means you have to see how the two statements are related. If they are related then you can deduce a conclusion that makes sense. 2. Here are my conclusions for the 6 problems on page 7. 1. a. No medicine is nice b. Senna is a medicine Here I deduced that Senna is not a nice medicine. I think this because the first statement says that â€Å"no medicine is nice. † That tells me that all medicines are not nice. The second statement says â€Å"Senna is a medicine†. That statement is straight forward. When you put them together you can decide that Senna is a medicine and medicines are not nice. So Senna is not nice. 2. a. All shillings are round b. These coins are round Here I decided that no now conclusions can be drawn. The first statement says â€Å"All shillings are round. † That statement is clear. The second statement says â€Å"These coins are round. † This tells you the coin they have are round. When you put these statements together you can see some flaws. They say these coins but you don’t know if any of these coins are shillings. They can be other coins that are round. So you cannot deduce anything. These coins are 3. a. Some pigs are wild b. All pigs are fat Here I decided that there are no conclusions that can be made. The first statement tells you that some pigs are wild and the second tells you that all pigs are fat. But when you put these statements together you get wild pigs are fat but you already know that because the second statement says that all pigs are fat. Thus you cannot deduce anything. . a. Prejudiced persons are untrustworthy b. Some unprejudiced persons are disliked Here there are no conclusions that can be made. These statements are just statements are just statements and you cannot deduce anything from them. If you combine these statements you get prejudice persons are untrustworthy and some are disliked. 5. a. Babies are illogical b. Nobody who is despised can manage a crocodile c. Illogical persons are d espised Here I deduce that Babies cannot manage a crocodile. The first statement says that Babies are illogical. The third statement says that illogical persons are despised. When you put those statement together you get babies are despised. Then you have to look at the second statement. Nobody who is despised can manage a crocodile. So when you put those statements together you get babies cannot manage a crocodile. 6. a. No birds, except ostriches, are 9 feet tall b. There are no birds in the aviary that belong to anyone but me c. No ostrich lives on mince pies d. I have no birds less that 9 feet tall. Here I deduced that the birds in the aviary are ostriches and they do not eat mince pies.. To deduce this I combined the third and fourth statements. Together it says that no birds less than 9 feet tall are in the aviary. Then when you combine that statement with the fourth statement you deduce that the birds in the aviary are ostriches. And when you conclude the third statement you get a final statement that says the birds in the aviary are ostriches and they do not eat mince pies. Part Two Valid Conclusion: People with hats are untrustworthy Untrustworthy people are dangerous. Invalid Conclusion: Some Golden Retrievers are gold These dogs are gold 3. This POW has to do with mathematics because it is all about logic. In math without logic you would less successful then if you do have logic. If something does not seem right to you or is confusing you are using logic to realize that something is wrong and will use it to solve it. Without logic you wouldn’t know when something is right or wrong. 4. This POW was fairly simple. But some of the problems required you to think more than others. But if you think it out in steps you will be able to solve them easily. I believe that I did well and thought out each problem as well as I can.

Monday, July 29, 2019

What roles does video games play in developing problem solving skills Research Paper

What roles does video games play in developing problem solving skills in students k-12 grades - Research Paper Example Video gaming has successfully cut across gender barriers and, surprisingly, almost 40% of all gamers, are female. In as much as two-thirds of all US households play video games, nearly 25% of all gamers are under the 18 years age bracket. Over the last ten years, children have exhibited a substantial increase in amount of time spent on video gaming (Rideout, Foehr and Roberts, 2010). From an average of 26 minutes in 1999, a child spent about an hour and thirteen minutes in 2009, on video gaming. Against the backdrop of such overwhelming popularity, this activity which seduces children and adults alike, present a host of benefits. Paradoxically, anti-gaming activists, too, make up a sizeable number and with good reason, as well. Introduction Video gaming as an educational pedagogy and a learning mode opens up a world of possibilities. A judicious marriage of caution and openness, supplemented by appropriate investments by way of time and effort, would prove to be ideal. Drawing pointe rs from issues such as gaming collaboration, single player games and usage of video gaming as an academic pedagogy, this paper attempts to prove that video games do not enrich the problem solving skills of K-12 students. The issue of why kids play video games and what they learn from this addictive activity has been a source of constant debate and dispute, among parents, teachers, VIDEO GAMES DO NOT ENRICH PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS researchers as well as the students. (Olthouse, 2009) proposes video gaming as a new, diverse and a growing phenomenon. While the fun element is what essentially draws kids to video games, it can be viewed against the backdrop of a host of perspectives such as gaming as a play, reinforcement, social interaction, fantasy as well as a cognitive exercise. While younger children sought immediate positive responses through the gaming exercise, mature children in the age group 14 to 18 years, exhibited good emotional value, sought stimulus and took risks in an act ion-packed genre. However, in many a case, video games offered a high dose of motivational power and requited large investment in terms of time and money. These proved to be heavy put offs for children. On a positive note, video games promoted meta cognition, computer and perceptual skills. On the downside, these games proved to be highly addictive, costly and heightened aggression. It also discouraged imagination and wonderment among the players. Another negative outcome was Stereotypical gender representations. Collaboration The advent of multi-player and on line games invited gamers to an interactive, participative and collaborative genre of video games Collaboration (Meij, Albers & Leemkuil, 2011) is an attempt to make an individual play, commercial off the shelf games, in pairs, rather than in a solitary mode. This strategy aims at benefitting from the resultant synergy as also to promote social interaction. Though the players reportedly benefitted a great deal from the opportu nity to discuss and analyse the test VIDEO GAMES DO NOT ENRICH PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS scores, surprisingly, collaboration did not exhibit any positive affect on gaming engagement and individual knowledge scores, presumably, because the game dialogues were concentrated on superficial gaming features such as game movements. Single player games The attractiveness of single player games is still hard to beat. Citing three examples of the best video games ever, namely, Roller Coaster Tycoon, The Sims and Grand Theft Auto III (Prensky, 2002), a comprehensive analysis elucidates through the 5 Ws - how, why, what, where and when/whether - the need for welcoming video games into the learning domain. Both the positive and

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Researching Communities Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

Researching Communities - Essay Example According to the 2011 Office for National Statistics, Haringey’s population was 254,900 and 14,429 of that being Northumberland’s (5.6%). The population growth locally has been due to the increase in births and net gain from international migration; for instance Italy, Spain and Poland are the top three countries where people who have registered for national insurance over the three years 2010-2012 in Haringey have come from (totalling 11,128). Northumberland ward accounts for 32.8% of young people aged below 20 living in Haringey and yet they are significantly deprived of recreational facilities. Lack of recreation and employment is, therefore, reflected in high crime levels. Crime Plus ASB breakdown for Northumberland Park by the Metropolitan Police Service has statistics for the period April 2014 to March 2015; included 553 of Violent Crime, 556 of Anti-Social Behaviour and 220 Burglaries. The research is a community-based participatory research that seeks to study the particular problems facing Northumberland Park and its residents. The findings will be helpful in finding lasting solutions to the problems facing the region. It is largely investigative and seeks to justify some of the actions that will be contemplated in the regeneration programme for Northumberland Park Ward. It takes the form of a case study, being a study of the deprivation situation of Northumberland Park, and the views of the residents on the dimension the regeneration should take. Some of the research tools employed in this study include questionnaire-based interviews. The questionnaires are more suitable for the interviews in this study because it provides a clear insight into the deprivation state of Northumberland while at the same time making the local community an integral part of the study. The findings of this study are dependent on how much information can be extracted from the local residents. Questionnaire as a research tool will engage the local community is

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Maths and Statistics Assignment 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Maths and Statistics Assignment 2 - Essay Example The point of intersection, where the axes meet is called the origin normally labelled as O. A particular point on a two dimensional coordinate system is defined by the x unit first, followed by y unit in the form (x, y). There are four quadrants as shown in below figure. In Quadrant I the values are (x,y), and II:(-x,y), III:(-x,-y) and IV:(x,-y). The  polar coordinate system  is a  two-dimensional  coordinate system  in which a distance from a fixed point and an angle from a fixed direction determine each point on a plane. It is useful where the relationship between two points is expressed in terms of angle and distance. The fixed point is called the  pole, and the  ray  from the pole with the fixed direction is the  polar axis. The distance from the pole is called the  radial coordinate  or  radius, and the angle (measured in anti-clockwise) is the  angular coordinate,  polar angle, or  azimuth. Below diagram (left) shows the polar coordinate system: A particular point on the polar coordinate system is defined by the distance r first, followed by the angle ÃŽ ¸ (in degrees or radians) in the form (r, ÃŽ ¸). An equivalent Cartesian  coordinate system  for the polar coordinate system  is shown to the right, where point (x, y) is represented by (. Latitude  (horizontal line also referred as parallel) is the angular distance, in degrees, minutes, and seconds of a point north or south of the Equator.  Each degree of latitude is approximately 69 miles (111 km) apart. Degrees latitude are numbered from 0 ° to 90 ° north and south. Zero degree is the equator, the imaginary line that divides our planet into the northern and southern hemispheres. 90 ° north is the North Pole and 90 ° south is the South Pole. Longitude  (vertical line also referred as meridians) is the angular distance, in degrees, minutes, and seconds, of a point east or

Friday, July 26, 2019

Information Systems and Business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Information Systems and Business - Essay Example In this background, this paper analyzes the questions where these researchers make significant compromises and who does the better job of operationalization in their research article. In their article, Hirschheim and Sabherwal make significant compromises when they deal with the issue of alignment between IS and the business strategies which has traditionally been a key issue facing IS management. Due to insufficient research being conducted on how such alignment is achieved and sustained over time, the authors find it difficult to conceptualize and operationalize their original variables. "Thus, our view of strategic alignment focuses on an organization's ongoing efforts to establish and maintain a series of interdependent relationships between business and IS strategies. These relationships involve the movement (i.e., change) of business strategy and/or IS strategy in such a way that the two are in alignment." (Hirschheim and Sabherwal, 2001, p. 87).

Research methodology Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Research methodology - Case Study Example For experimental quantitative research, the question has to be set in a way that it seeks to capture the relationship between the independent and dependent variables under the specified conditions. A causal relationship between variables is indicated by one variable following the other logically. On the other hand, the question for quasi-experiment, descriptive and correlational quantitative research does not seek to manipulate variables. Rather, it seeks to guide the gathering of existing data and deduce the relationship between variables without going by causality. There are categorical, ordinal, and continuous variable measurements in quantitative research (Swanson & Holton 2005, p.29). The choice of the participants of a study is guided by the need to ensure a sample size and composition that is representative of the population to which the findings of the study are generalized. The choice of participants is also influenced by the consideration of the nature of participants – whether human or nonhuman – because of ethical issues and this impacts the choice of the most appropriate research design. The decision of which methods to use in answering the research question posed is guided by the variables, research design and participants. This decision considers the quantity and quality of the source of the data, validity and reliability. The findings of a study can be invalidated or undermined by the lack of validity and reliability. The analysis and interpretation of data is founded on the statistical significance deduced. Data analysis in quantitative research utilizes statistics to explain how variables predict, associate, compare, and describe how th e outcomes of a study answer the propositions of the study. Data analysis tools are chosen on the basis of the propositions of the study, the type of data and type of research

Thursday, July 25, 2019

The Process of Changing the Oil in Your Car Research Paper

The Process of Changing the Oil in Your Car - Research Paper Example To change the oil, you need to drain the car first of its old oil. The used oil can be drained out of the oil pan at bottom of your engine. The pan that holds the oil has a drain plug that looks like a big bolt of which you need to remove to drain the old oil. But before removing the drain plug, make sure that you have already positioned your container beneath the oil drain. The container will catch the used oil as it spills out of the pan. When it is already in place, you can now remove the drain plug and let the old oil pour into the container. When all of the old oil is already drained into your container, replace the drain plug and tighten it. After draining the pan of the used oil, you have to remove the old oil filter. Most of the time, you will have to be under your car to do this but sometimes it can be reached from the top of the engine that you will not have to crawl under your car. You can remove the old oil filter by using an oil filter wrench to turn it in the counter clockwise until it’s loosed. But before installing the new oil filter, lubricate it first with the new oil so that rubber gasket can easily be screwed when you install it. After lubricating the new oil filter, you can now fill it with the new oil of about 2/3 of its capacity. After that, you can now install it into its place. Carefully hold it upright and screw it clockwise; remember to be careful because it has oil in it so it won’t spill. Lastly, you can now fill the engine with your new oil. To do this, just remove or unscrew the oil fill cap and inject the smaller end of your funnel. At this stage, it is important to check your owne r’s manual if you are doing this the first time of how much oil your engine can hold. The amount of oil your engine can hold varies with different type of vehicles so it is important to check. When you have already checked the capacity of oil your engine can hold, put the new oil in it remembering that the amount of oil you have put into the engine will be just a little more than ? of what it can hold. Never throw you used oil on the ground, nor dispose it on a river, creek or in a garbage bin. Remember that oil is combustible and can be dangerous to any organism living in a body of water. Instead, call your local gas station or oil change station and ask if they would like to have your used oil. Most of them would take your used oil because this can be recycled for future use. This would not only decrease our dependence for foreign sources oil but also helps to preserve the environment as well. When you have done all of this process without a glitch, congratulate yourself fo r you have just saved yourself some money. Word count: 760

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

History of Informatics and Areas of Practice - Entity Ranking Term Paper

History of Informatics and Areas of Practice - Entity Ranking - Term Paper Example I will proceed to describe each group and give required reasoning as to why each is important to me. Discussion 1. AMIA The first to me is the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA, 2012). One of its missions is to provide information on the electronic health records, compliance and reimbursement. Rather recent in its development (1989), formed due to the merger of three older groups, the organization concentrates on the holistic study of informatics, with concentration on five specific areas. Translational Bioinformatics is basically that which deals with analyzing and finding new ways of storing medical data. Clinical Research Informatics involves the management of trials and discoveries related to health maintenance and disease prevention. Clinical Informatics is concerned with the application of information technology in the treatment arena. Other healthcare professionals, such as dentists and veterinarians, could also apply it in their work. Consumer Health Informatics is the branch concerned with the public information and education and also is responsible for EMR. Public Health Informatics is where the CDC would be involved, as it is mainly concerned with such things as infectious diseases and bioterrorism (AMIA, 2012). Therefore it can be seen that the AMIA is involved in all areas of informatics and, as it states in its own bylaws â€Å"AMIA aims to lead the way in transforming health care through trusted science, education, and the practice of informatics.† The core of their beliefs is the science of informatics, which in a nutshell is enhancing the health of the patients while providing the best in quality and safety of care through the use of information technology. As it is a nonprofit organization, most of its money can, therefore, be dedicated to promoting informatics. The AMIA also has its own journal, appropriately named the JAMIA. It should come as a little surprise that the American Medical Association (AMA) has coordinated wi th the AMIA to come up with a new specialty, Clinical Informatics (Dolan, 2011). Therefore, considering the arguments I have provided, I feel the AMIA should be recognized as first and foremost in importance of all informatics groups and the specific disciplines each represents. 2. HIMSS The Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS, 2012) like the AMIA is a non-profit organization â€Å"exclusively focused on providing global leadership for the optimal use of information technology (IT) and management systems for the betterment of healthcare† (HIMSS, 2012). It specializes in the betterment of such areas as Home Health, as it is found patients respond much better in a comfortable environment such as the home. Clinical Business Intelligence uses informatics in the modernization and development of the medical practice, utilizing available statistical data to ensure better patient care. HIMSS is also heavily involved in the Electronic Medical Record conversion process in order for doctors and clinics to comply with federal law and simplify the healthcare professionals’ job. Other areas of concern for HIMSS are pharmaceutical informatics, medical banking (the business part of the medical business), and billing and paying. HIMSS is also

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Municipal Solid Waste Management in Beijing Assignment - 2

Municipal Solid Waste Management in Beijing - Assignment Example The challenges section of the article is insightful more so because it contains suggestions that can help surmount the challenges (Wang & Wang 71). Â  The data that the ash waste component is high I rural areas are valuable because it indicates that the rural areas are still depending on nonrenewable sources of energy. The data on the impact of moisture content on the real calorific value of municipal solid waste is noteworthy as it explains why waste incineration is less effective. The article adds onto the existing knowledge by including data that shows that rejection of municipal solid waste management by community members is an important impediment because community members are a key stakeholder in the endeavor (Wang & Wang 71). Â  I agree with the conclusion that economic development leads to increase in municipal solid waste. This is because economic development gives people affordability and this subsequently increases the waste products that come from the things they buy. The increase in food and paper waste component in municipal solid waste is proof of the effect of economic development, especially in the urban areas.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Psychological Perspectives for Health and Social Care Essay Example for Free

Psychological Perspectives for Health and Social Care Essay Psychologists uses a range of perspectives and approaches when studying how individuals think, feel and behave. Some researchers may focus on one specific perspective, whilst other researchers study a more diverse approach that may incorporate multiple points of views. Each perspective aims to offer explanations for different aspects of human behaviour. The behaviourist approach’s influence to health care The behaviourist approach is based on the concept of explaining behaviour through observation and the belief in which our environment is what causes us to behave differently. The behavioural learning model learning is the result of conditioning. The foundation of conditioning is that a reward following a desirable response performs as a reinforcer and increases the possibility that the desirable response will be repeated. Reinforcement is said to be the core of the behaviourist approach. Furthermore, once a desired behaviour established, irregular reinforcement maintains the behaviour. The behaviourist theory approaches are frequently used in weight loss, smoking cessation, assertiveness training and anxiety-reduction programs. The significance of frequently and consistently rewarding desired behaviour immediately and not rewarding undesirable behaviour is crucial to the success of a behaviourist approach to learning. The principles of classical conditioning have been applied in many therapies. As its name suggests, behavioural therapy is focused on human behaviour and looks to eliminate unwanted or abnormal behaviour. Typically this type of therapy is used for those with behavioural problems or mental health conditions that involve unwanted behaviour. Examples of this include: addictions, anxiety, and methodical desensitization for phobias, aversion therapy and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Practitioners of behavioural therapy believe that behaviour is learned and can therefore be un-learned through therapy. As well as the behaviour  itself, behavioural therapists will look at thoughts and feelings that lead to the behaviour or occur as a result of the behaviour to comprehend the issue at a greater level. Aversion therapy is a form of treatment that utilizes behavioural principles to eliminate unwanted behaviour as it follows, if all behaviour is learned it can be unlearned. In this therapeutic method, the unwanted stimulus is repeatedly paired with discomfort. The objective of the conditioning process is to command that the individual associates the stimulus with unpleasant or uncomfortable sensations. There are many reasons why behaviour could perhaps be unlearned; this could be due to behaviour in which is destructive or undesirable. These undesirable behaviours come about as individuals associate them with pleasure; the brain learns that, such as, drinking may allow one to feel relaxed a lowers stress levels. This is somewhat fine, however if one becomes reliant on the substance and it begins to take a dominant part in one’s life then this has become an undesirable behaviour. It is one’s choice to unlearn that alcohol equals pleasure. Aversion therapy goes about eliminating this behaviour by attempting to break the association between alcohol and pleasure. The therapy, in the case of alcoholism, involves the patient drinking while together having a negative stimulus directed. The negative stimulus could be an emetic drug (one that causes the patient to vomit when drinking alcohol) such as an emetic drug, one that encouraging vomiting when alcohol is consumed like disulfiram (a synthetic compound used in the treatment of alcoholics to make drinking alcohol produce unpleasant after-effects), or an electric shock administered whenever the patient drinks. In short, then he patient is punished for drinking and, for the same reason a parent punishes a child, a successful outcome is to reduce or completely eliminate their undesirable behaviour. The cognitive approach’s influence to health care Cognitive therapy for depression has its roots in the cognitive theory of depression (Beck, 1967). It is an active, structured, problem-focused, and  time-limited approach to treatment which is based on the premise that depression is maintained by negatively biased information processing and dysfunctional beliefs. Treatment is designed to help patients learn to think more adaptively and thereby experience improvements in affect, motivation, and behaviour. The effectiveness of cognitive therapy for depression has been demonstrated in over 30 clinical trials (Dobson, 1989). The general approach in cognitive therapy for depression involves guiding patients through a number of structured learning experiences. Patients are taught to monitor and write down their negative thoughts and mental images to recognize the association between their thoughts, feelings, physiology, and behaviour. They learn to evaluate the validity and utility of these cognitions, test them out empirically, and change dysfunctional cognitions to reflect a more adaptive viewpoint. As therapy progresses, patients learn to identify, evaluate, and modify underlying assumptions and dysfunctional beliefs that may have predisposed them to depressive reactions. The therapist also teaches (or reactivates) adaptive coping skills such as breaking down large problems into smaller, more manageable steps, and decision-making by cost-benefit analysis. Activity scheduling, self-monitoring of mastery and pleasure, and graded task assignments are commonly used early in therapy to help patients overcome inertia and expose themselves to potentially rewarding experiences. Patients typically require approximately eight sessions to gain a reasonable level of mastery with the model and the skills involved. A significant reduction in symptoms often occurs during this initial stage of therapy. The remaining sessions are used to evaluate and modify dysfunctional beliefs that impair functioning and make the patient vulnerable to future depressive episodes, build relapse prevention skills, and discuss termination issues. According to my research, many patients show a remission of symptoms in 8-12 sessions. A full course of treatment is considered to be 14-16 sessions although severe cases can take longer. Maintenance of treatment gains is enhanced by occasional booster sessions during the first year after one’s termination. The humanistic approach’s influence to health care Humanist learning theorists view learning as a function of the whole person and believe that learning cannot take place unless both the cognitive and affective domains are involved. The individual’s capacity for self-determination is a vital segment of the humanist theory. For example, the humanist theory is used to help post myocardial infarction (a syndrome that involves the inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart); patients regain a sense of personal control over their health care management. The focus of the humanistic perspective is on the self of one individual which translates into you, and your perception of your individual experiences. This approach argues that one is free to choose his own behaviour, rather than responding to environmental stimuli and reinforcers. Issues dealing with one’s self-esteem, self-fulfilment, and requirements are seen as dominant. The key focus is to assist one’s personal development. Two major theorists associated with this view are Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. All patients grow with success and do better when achievements are recognized and reinforced. Respecting the whole person in a supportive environment can encourage learning. Learning is also fostered through structuring information appropriately and presenting it in meaningful segments with appropriate feedback. There are a vast variety of conditions that should be encountered before an individual can develop on becoming self-actualized. According to the ‘needs hierarchy’ described by Abraham Maslow, individuals must first secure their basic organismic needs (including adequate food, clothing and shelter necessary to keep them alive). Having achieved the essentials, they next build up and work to achieve: a feeling of adequate safety, a sense of belonging (to one or more social groups and relationship), and a sense of self-respect and social respect. Self-actualization, the drive for one to do all that he desires to do with his life, is something that only occurs as a influence of behaviour after all the earlier needs are adequately satisfied and a state of contented happiness is achieved. For instance, the media create unrealistic, and for most individuals  unattainable ‘ideal’ image, especially for women and adolescent girls. The majority of models exposed publicly are greatly below the ‘normal’ weight for their age and height. In the humanistic vision, human dysfunctions are caused by a faulty or interrupted development process; essentially human issues regarding to immaturity, or commonly of the social/emotional variety. The aim of humanistic therapy is to promote social or emotional maturity and growth. Through assisting service user’s to resume their disrupted developmental processes in healthy directions, patients are helped by professionals in order to grow up and out the of the immature mental and emotional states that contribute to the pain one may feel or cause pain upon others. The psychodynamic approach to health care Anxiety is a feeling of worry, extreme nervousness, or unease about something with an uncertain outcome. The condition gives of an uncomfortable feeling of fear or an approaching disaster and could perhaps negatively reflects the thoughts and bodily reactions an individual may encounter when presented with a situation that is unable to be managed. When an individual experiences the feelings of anxiety, their thoughts may often actively assess the different situations without intentionally doing so; the individual may too develop predictions of how they will cope founded on past experiences. Despite the fact that some anxiety is a normal response to difficult and stressful circumstances, whereas the anxiety level is abnormally high an individual may lack the awareness of how to effectively control the issue. Anxiety can take many forms, and several of these may consist of: An intense physical response due to the arousal of the nervous system leading to the physical symptoms (which may involve the racing of a heartbeat). A cognitive response referring to the thought about the issue and the individuals ability to manage with it. Those which encounter the condition of anxiety may often feel negative about most situations and think unenthusiastic thoughts. A behavioural response which could consist avoidance or unusual behaviour including aggression, restlessness or  irrational behaviour. An emotion response reflecting the high level of distress the individual is confronted with. There is just not one cause of anxiety, however there are a number of factors that could contribute to the development of anxious thoughts, feelings and behaviour. The many factors comprise of: Hereditary many research has suggested that those with a family history of anxiety are more likely to also develop anxiety. Biochemical reasons Research suggests that individuals who experience a high level of anxiety may have an imbalance of chemicals in the brain that regulate feelings and physical reactions. Certain life experiences Particular life experiences can allow individuals more vulnerable to anxiety. Events such as a family break-up, abuse, ongoing bullying, and/or workplace conflict can be stress factors that challenge a persons coping resources and leave them in a vulnerable state to experiencing anxiety. References: Euromed Info [Online] Available from: (Date accessed 19/01/15) Cognitive-behavioural approaches and weight management: an overview. (2000) [Online] Available from: (Date accessed 19/01/15) Cognitive Therapy for Depression [Online] Available from: (Date accessed 19/01/15) What Is Aversion Therapy? (2015) [Online] Available from: (Date accessed 09/02/15] DEPRESSION: MAJOR DEPRESSION UNIPOLAR VARIETIES (2015) [Online] Available from: (Date accessed 09/02/15) Humanistic Approach (2015) [Online] Available from: [Date accessed 09/02/15] Theory in Humanistic Psychology [Online] Available from: [Date accessed 11/02/15] Psychotherapy (2015) [Online] Available from: [Date accessed 11/02/15] Aversion Therapy Alcoholism Drug Therapy (2013) [Online] Available from: [Date accessed 11/02/15]

Impact of Waterlogging on Plants

Impact of Waterlogging on Plants Abstract: This review will try to illustrate some of the impacts that waterlogging has on plants, in monocotyledons dicotyledons. The review includes, a general introduction into the impact of anaerobic/waterlogged soil condition on plants, quoting from different sources in this field. Then it focuses on five plant species of global interest or importance, Barley, Tomatoes, Soy Bean, Cotton and Rice, showing the effect of waterlogging on each, quoting journals and experiments done by fellow scientist .The topic of research into waterlogging is vast, with thousands of journals and experiments on countless plant species, so Im focusing on just five. Flooding and submergence are major abiotic stresses and rank alongside water shortage, salinity and extreme temperatures as major determinants of species distribution worldwide. Plants adapt to their ever-changing environment in many ways, leading to a wealth of growth forms of varying complexity (Visser et al, 2003). A major constraint resulting fr om excess water, at least for poorly adapted species, is an inadequate supply of oxygen to submerged tissues; diffusion of oxygen through water is 104-fold slower than in air (Armstrong Drew, 2002). In addition to the threat of oxygen deficiency, excess water also leads to other changes in the soil that influence plants; levels of the plant hormone ethylene (Smith Russell, 1969; Jackson, 1982), and products of anaerobic metabolism by soil micro-organisms (e.g. Mn2+, Fe2+, S2-, H2S and carboxylic acids) can accumulate (Ponnamperuma, 1984; McKee and McKevlin, 1993). It was suggested by (Zhou, Li, and Mendham, 2007), that Waterlogging tolerance is likely to be a complex trait which is related to many morphological and physiological traits that are under strong environmental influence. Introduction: Waterlogging can lead to countless physiological and developmental problems as mentioned in many publications, journals and experiments. It was suggested by setter co-workers, 1999 that, Stress on plants imposed by flooding of the soil and deeper submergence constitutes one of the major abiotic constraints on growth, species distribution and agricultural productivity. Waterlogging is estimated to reduce yields on average by 20 to 25%, but the loss may exceed 50% depending on the stage of plant development (Setter et al., 1999). 50 % loss in agricultural yield can be catastrophic in the future, especially for developing countries, which is why, research into waterlogging is crucial for agricultural sustainability and food security. The general effect of waterlogging on plants ranges from physiological, developmental and metabolic effects which are mentioned in a few publications. Waterlogging is a major problem restricting the plant growth by leading to oxygen deficiency around roots and rhizomes, and consequently it can be fatal because aerobic respiration ceases and levels of energy-rich adenylates drop rapidly resulting in dramatic decrease in ion uptake and transport (Huang et al, 2003; vartapetian et al, 2003) as quoted in (Changdee., et al, 2008). When soil is saturated with water, gas diffusion is reduced. Consequently one of the main effects of flooding is a lower pool of available O2 in submerged plant parts. This decline in O2 is heightened by aerobic processes taking place in the root zone of plants. Accordingly anoxic conditions develop, leading to reduction in ATP production and consequent decrease in root metabolism. The decline in available energy can subsequently reduce other active cellular processes such as nutrient uptake, osmotic adjustment or regulation of cytoplasmic pH (Probert Keating, 2000). Waterlogging resulted in visible yellowing and premature senescence of leaves, and greater decline in relative water content, chlorophyll content, and membrane stability (Sairam, et al, 2009). The majority of plants respond negatively to waterlogging whilst some plants respond positively. Discussion: Plants throughout the years have adapted different ways to minimize damage caused by waterlogging. All plants poses survival mechanisms which are of a complex nature, and differing between some species. Plants also differ in the way they respond to anaerobic or anoxia soil conditions, some are extremely tolerant, some very sensitive and some in between. Even species that are susceptible to poorly aerated conditions possess metabolic and molecular responses that lengthen survival time from a few hours to several days. All plant species synthesize so-called anaerobic proteins that enable an oxygen-independent energy-generating metabolism to proceed where fermentable substrates are available (Subbaiah Sachs, 2003). Prevention of the build-up of potential phytotoxins is another mechanism that enhances plant survival under flooded conditions. A specific type of hemoglobin (phytoglobin) may play such a role by detoxifying nitric oxide formed during hypoxia of root tissues. Alternatively, phytoglobin may also regenerate NAD+, thereby serving as an alternative to fermentation as a source (Dordas et al., 2003). Impact of waterlogging on five plant species Barley: In barley Waterlogging inhibits the uptake of N which leads to the decrease of N concentration in shoots of barley seedlings (Drew and Sisworo, 1977). Pang et al. (2005) found that both shoot and root growth was negatively affected by waterlogging. As waterlogging stress developed, chlorophyll content, CO2 assimilation rate, and maximal quantum efficiency of photosystem II (variable fluorescence/maximum fluorescence) decreased significantly, with cultivars showing less yellow leaf percentage having less adverse effects (Pang et al., 2005). A decrease in nitrogen uptake, fluorescence leads to decreased leaf area index (LAI) and decreased yields. Oxygen deficiency in the rooting zone occurs under waterlogging conditions, the lack of O2 can severely damage the root (Drew, 1997) . Soil waterlogging usually influences barley growth in a negative way, the inhibition of N uptake, and the consequent redistribution of N within the shoot, are important contributory factors in the early senescence of leaves and the retarded growth of shoots in flooded plants (Drew and Sisworo, 1977). A decrease in the N concentration in shoots of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings can occur rapidly after the onset of flooding and precede leaf chlorosis (Drew and Sisworo, 1977; Wang et al., 1996) and consequently reduces shoot and root growth, dry matter accumulation, and final yield (Kozlowski, 1984; Drew, 1991; Huang et al., 1994a,1994b; Malik et al., 2002). Roots are also injured by O2 deficiency and metabolic changes during acclimation to low concentrations of O2 (Drew, 1997). Tomatoes: in tomatoes it was reported that; Enhanced ethylene production and leaf epinasty are characteristic responses of tomato (Lycopersicon escukntum Mill.) to Waterlogging. It has been proposed by (Bradford Yang, 1980) that this results from the synthesis of the immediate precursor of ethylene, 1-aminocyclopropane-I-carboxylic acid (ACC), in the waterlogged roots, and its export in the transpiration stream to the shoot, and its rapid conversion to ethylene gas as stated in (Kent, et al, 1982). Soybean: It has been reported that cereals are generally more tolerant to flooding than legumes (Crawford, R.M.M, 1977) as quoted by (Russel, Wong Sachs, 1990). Cotton: Waterlogging of cotton has been reported to cause a reduction in root growth and nutrient uptake (Letey et al., 1962; Huck, 1970; Hocking et al., 1987), leaf area and photosynthesis (Hodgson, 1982; Meyer et al., 1987; Sahay, 1989) and dry matter accumulation and fruiting (Hodgson, 1982; Hocking et al., 1987). Rice: (Oryza sativa), is one of the most interesting monocotyledonous plants in my opinion, rice is one of the few plant species that can adapt too tolerate very low concentrations of oxygen in the soil and reacts positively to waterlogging without negative effects on plants growth and development. Rice grows better than any other plant in the same waterlogged conditions. In two experiments by Perata on rice seed germination showed interesting results.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Types Of Clinical Decision Support System Computer Science Essay

Types Of Clinical Decision Support System Computer Science Essay Nowadays, technology is growing rapidly. With such tremendously growth of technology, many field of industry is taking the chance in adopting these technologies to transform their business flow to fit with the environment. Medical is one of the industries that changing their services to provide better care and better treatment to patients. Many clinical center, hospitals or medical organization is investing on Clinical Decision Support System to improve the quality of decision making from the progress of diagnosis. What is Clinical Decision Support System? Clinical Decision Support Systems are active knowledge systems which use two or more items of patient data to generate case-specific advice from Wyatt J, Spiegelhalter D, 1991 (OpenClinical 2001-2009) It designed to integrate with a medical knowledge database as well as patient data to generate case specific advises to users. In another words, it is designed to healthcare professional to make medical decision. Instead of taking the place of diagnosis as a job of computer program, it rather intended to support the clinical experts because computer is not able to perform as a human being and it may cause error which may harm and risking others people survivability. In some area, computers can help the clinician in retrieving details needed in the progress of diagnosis such as patients medical history, all kind of examination and laboratory test. In addition, the reaction of drug and allergies toward the patient will be taken into account to help a busy clinician to handle over hundred patients in a day. (Clinical Decision Support System, Citizendium, 2006) What is the purpose of Clinical Decision Support System? CDSS generally is used to assist clinician by using the point of medical to provide some expert opinion or advices. A clinician may interact with CDSS in doing determination of diagnosis, analysis and etc by according to provided patient data. Previous theories of CDSS were to use the CDSS to literally make decisions for the clinician. (Clinical Decision Support System, iScanMyFood, 2010). By now, clinician is able to input information to the system and wait for CDSS to output the right choice to advice them the correct action. By gone through the computer analysis, clinician is not only making decision through own knowledge which may not be most suitable result from a diagnosis but also getting advices from computer to improve the quality of decision making. In another words, it served as a peripheral brain. Functions of Clinical Decision Support System There are 4 basic functions contain in Clinical Decision Support System which are Administrative, Managing clinical complexity and details, Cost control, Decision support by based on Perreault Metzger. Administrative means system must be administrable which means that it must be able to support clinical coding and documentation, procedures and referrals of the medical center. In order to achieve that, CDSS is always created through multiple platforms and it understands very well on every medicals standard procedure. Other than that, it must be able to manage clinical complexity and details. It keeps patients on research and chemotherapy protocols as clinical experts always did. It tracks patient orders, referrals follow-up the status of patient and preventive care after prescription. Cost controllable by avoiding any duplication of process, document or any unnecessary lab test and to monitor medication orders to confirm any incorrect places which might be a direct harm to particular medical centers financial Decision Support is mean to support clinical diagnosis and treatment plan processes and promoting use of best practices, condition-specific guidelines, and population-based management. (OpenClinical 2001-2009) Characteristics and Types of Clinical Decision Support System Characteristics of CDSS There are 4 basic component usually required by CDSS which are Inference Engine, Knowledge Base, Explanation Module and Working Memory. Inference Engine Inference Engine is the main part of CDSS. It used knowledge from database integrated with the system as well as the knowledge about the patient to generate an output or a conclusion based on certain condition. Inference engine control the actions of the system and guide system with the best actions. For an example, it will start to detect the condition to trigger the alert or conclusion to be displayed in a diagnostic progress. Knowledge Base Knowledge Base acquired the knowledge Inference Engine used to present to the users. In Knowledge base, it contains every risk factor to carry out in new lesions and risk scores. It will be built with the involvement of clinical domain experts with also every activity of create, edit and maintenance. In another way, some knowledge base is created through automated process. Automated process knowledge is acquired from external sources such as books, magazine, journal articles and database by a computer application. The process of creating a knowledge base is complex and complicated. In order to make it easier, there are tools specially created to facilitate the acquisition and elicitation of knowledge base. There is an example tool called Protà ©gà ©, a knowledge- based development environment. Working memory Working memory is a collection of patient data or form of a message which is stored inside database. These data may include patients age, name, data of birth, gender and etc or allergies, history medical information or problems and other information. Explanation Module Explanation Module responsible in composing justification for the conclusions drawn by the Inference Engine by applied Knowledge base and patient data. This component is not presented in all CDSSs. In another way, CDSS can work on synchronous mode and asynchronous mode. In synchronous mode, users can communicate directly with application to wait for the output from system. Users will have to wait for the output in order to continue their works. For example, CDSS checks for drugs interaction or any possible medicine that patient allergies to then clinician will only able to continue to diagnose patient by based on the result generated by CDSS. When there is in asynchronous mode, CDSS is performing independently while does not required user to wait for. For an example generate a checkup reminder for patients. CDSS can be categorized as open-loop or closed-loop systems. Open-loop CDSS will generate a conclusion but it takes no action directly by its own. Usually users will take the actions on the final decision. For an example, CDSS generates alert or reminder to users to take the actions. A Closed-loop CDSS is the opposite of open-loop CDSS. It will take actions by its own without any intervention from users. For an example, system will automatic save up all details of diagnosis process. CDSS can be also an event monitor, a consultation system or a clinical guideline. Even monitor is a software application that converts every available data into electronic format and uses its integrated knowledge base to send reminder to clinicians appropriately. Consultation system allows user enters the details of a case and in another way, the system will provide user a list of problems that may explain the case and suggestion the best action to be taken. Clinical Guideline basically developed by a group of clinical experts and disseminated by the government or by professional organization and it apply in most of the CDSS. This clinical guideline has been presented with every statement of best practices regarding to a particular health condition. Other than providing recommendation from various practices, it can be taken as examples in medical education. Type of Clinical Decision Support System Knowledge-based Clinical Decision Support System (Expert System) Knowledge-based expert systems are created by having experts use the biomedical literature to identify relationships between independent variables (such as signs and symptoms) and dependent variables (such as likely underlying diseases). It contains related arranged such as local hospital information, patient data and other compiled data and apply it with IF-ELSE-THEN predefined rules to guide through the whole progress of decision making. However, rules may also be acquired from various types of decision trees. These rules-based CDSS is the most usually found among all the clinical application. It will alert user when there is a possible drug doses or allergies which may harm or risk patient life by based on patient details such as age, sex, weight, height and etc. Example: if the system rules used to determine drug interaction, the formula will started to run and to detect every possible risky drug interaction, the rules might be IF drug A is taken AND drug B is taken THEN alert user. By going through these predefined rules, provided information must be always up-to-dated to prevent any wrong output which might lead to misdiagnosis. To construct a rule-based system for medical decision support, an expert with domain knowledge always must be recruited to create and handle the knowledge base and train the system. To train an expert system is very time-consuming and it the result that produced is only usable in a narrow scope project. Therefore, a rule-based CDSS is not commonly used to deliver the critical message to clinician. (Clinical Decision Support System, Citizendium, 2006) Non Knowledge-Based Clinical Decision Support System Non Knowledge Based CDSS does not apply any data from knowledge base but they used another kind of artificial intelligent called Machine Learning. From the term of Machine Learning, it means a machine will learn from the past experience and previous lesson that given by experts. This kind of idea has implemented in this type of CDSS. Computer will learn everything in previous medical progress and find pattern in clinical data. Non Knowledge based CDSS is trained from the relationship between symptoms and signs (also called independent variables) and diseases (also called dependent variables). Machine Learning is using case-based to proceed every lesson because the system is being trained from previous cases. There are 2 type of non knowledge based systems are artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms. It contains some mathematical models that can observe and emulate the properties of an item and some kind of adaptively learns the simulated properties of the item. (Clinical Decision Support System, Citizendium, 2006). Artificial neural networks type of CDSS can analyze the attributes or patterns from patient data to derive the associations between the symptoms and a diagnosis. (Wikipedia, 2010). It can perform supervised or unsupervised machine learning depending on the way of providing the available information. Genetic Algorithm is based on a several processes of searching and simplifying and use the directed selection achieve optimal CDSS result. The algorithm will first determine properties of sets of solutions to a problem. Every solution that generated will be recombined, mutated and repeat the process again. The rotation of finding solution will not stop until a proper solution is found. The knowledge used in finding solution is derived from patient data. It usually focus on those disease that caused by narrow list of symptoms. (Wikipedia, 2010) Architecture of Clinical Decision Support System 3.1. Basic Concept of Decision Support System Architecture Since Clinical decision support system is a kind of decision support system that is design to assist clinician in decision making tasks. The architecture design of decision support system always consists of two major sub-systems which is human decision maker and computer systems. Construct a decision support system with only computer hardware and software program is not a correct concept because there might be some unstructured or semi structured decision (those decisions cannot be decide through a collection of mathematical model or formula) is not able to be programmed by system because its precisely nature thinking from a human and it is elusive and complex. There is no such independent component in a decision support system. It always needs a human decision maker as another component of decision support system to integrate with computer systems. The function of human decision maker is not to build a database for decision support system. Instead of build a database, it functions a s a decision maker that provides judgment, share their experience and exercises intuition throughout the entire process of decision making. The very first step of decision making is begin with the creation of a decision support model (decision support model is the formula or the way that helps user to filter or decide the specific result) by using some integrated DSS program such as Microsoft Excel. System will interact with database through Database Management Systems (DBMS) and deal the data from database with the decision support model through Model-Based Management System (MBMS). DBMS is an application that used to create, manage as well as control the access to the database. MBMS is an application that embedded within a DSS program that allow user to create, edit and delete the decision support model. By going through DBMS and MBMS, model is able to associate with the data from database to make a specific decision. DSS diagram.png Figure 1.0 Decision Support System diagram The diagram above shows DBMS and MBMS is integrated with the DSS to communicate with the models and database to provide result to users. 3.2. Four-Phase Model of Clinical Decision Support Architecture Four-Phase Model of clinical decision support architecture is referring to 4 type of architecture that has been used in clinical decision support system development. These architectures also representing the evolutionary of clinical decision support system. This 4 type of architecture is standalone decision support system (1959), integrated system (1967), standards-based system (1989), service models (2005). The phases is happen sequentially, every phase is learned and influenced from previous phases. Standalone Decision Support System The first phase is Standalone decision support system which happened in year 1959. They were systems that operate separately from clinical system. The clinician got to purposely seek the system out and enter information of his medical cases and then wait for the system to interpret the result. This kind of system is easy to develop because user that comes with medical knowledge and computer skills can make one of it. It is easy to share as well because the system is easy to develop, it can be categorized as a simple system, user can just make a copy of the program and then mail to another who wishes to use the system. There are limitations such as they required user to enter all the information needed by the system to make it inference. Another disadvantage is user got to seek out how the system works and flow. User that is lack of medical knowledge might have problem in system usage and might causes a lot of medical error. Thus, they cannot be proactive. It also very time consuming, it may takes half to an hour to enter a case because the models feature is very narrow and it required a lot of information to generate an output. Integrated System Due to the significant problems from standalone CDSS, developers begun to involve the architecture into another which is integrated system. The invented of Integrated system have solved a lot of problems. First of them is termination of multiple user input. The information is stored electronically after the first input by the user. Another significant solution is system can be proactive. They can alert user when it detect dangerous between drugs interaction or the dosing error automatically. The major disadvantage of integrated system is difficult to share. This system is very complex because it directly built with large clinical system. Therefore, it cant directly share to others who are not using the same clinical system. Unlike standalone system which built only based on self knowledge and computer skills. It can be send to anyone who wanted to use it. Another major problem is knowledge management problem. When there is an update for knowledge or clinical guideline, it maybe needs to find the source code to know where is guideline used. Standard-Based System In order to make content sharable, several research and effort had been undertaken to standardize clinical decision support content. The standardization of content has overcome many disadvantage of integrated system. It shares the clinical decision support content by separate the code that describing the content from source code. However, it still has some limitations. First, there is way too much standard format to choose. There are over hundred of standard to represent a simple notification. Standardized encoded may constrain a users standard. The standard that user intended to write has the difficulty to compatible with the standardized standard. Service Models Service Models, the most recent CDSS architecture. It recombined clinical information system and clinical decision support system components by using a standard application programming interface (API). This models standardizing both clinical decision support system and clinical system into one interface. Both systems will only look at only one clinical system and one CDSS at a time although the knowledge about patient and medicine are across many places. Clinical Decision Supports Algorithm 4.1 Artificial Neural Network Artificial Neural Network is a method that used by non knowledge-based CDSS. It required training from experts in a form of artificial intelligence. It will base on the past experiences or recognized examples to create a set of solution to a medical problem. They possess the Human-Brain-Like behavior instead of Computer-Like. Due to the capability of knowing the behavior of problem through its experiences, they are commonly used in recognition problems. From the result, this methodology is very well in determining narrow and well-defined clinical problem. Three general type of algorithm used by machine learning which is unsupervised, reinforcement and supervised. Unsupervised Learning Unsupervised learning means the computer identify some natural grouping within a database by based on how similar the items are and what makes a Good group without being provided examples of feature values of items. Therefore, the way of machine learning also called clustering. Unfortunately, unsupervised learning is not being used in many studies of various type of diagnosis. Reinforcement Learning In reinforcement learning, it is not provided any samples of feature values of items. Instead of giving the samples, it is given a specific main point or feedbacks which are able to determine whether the system is on the right track. Supervised Learning In supervised learning, the computer is given the samples of feature value of items. The reason of doing supervised learning is to develop a classifier that can predicts all the possibility from given predetermined classes or samples based on a set of attributes and features to describe the items. 4.2 Bayesian Network Bayesian Network shows a set of variables and dependencies of conditional among the variables via Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG). Each node in the graph represents a variable and particular node will link to its neighbor to show the dependencies among the corresponding variables. This algorithm provides a simple understanding and definition between any two nodes. It helps predict and compute every possibility event might occur in a specific condition. In the stand of medical view, it can compute every possibility diseases by based on the symptoms given. For example, fever, cough, sore throat and chilling might lead to symptoms of Dengue disease. There are two important component consists in this algorithm which are structure and a set of parameters. Structure of the Bayesian Network is constructed from DAG. Every node in DAG may be given value by the parent node. Parameters are describing the relationship and the probabilities of a node to its parent. These components can support Bayesian Network computation by using the chain rule. Therefore, parameter and structure learning must be carrying out to fully represent probability distribution. Parameter learning is to specify each node in DAG is approximately distributed based on varies conditional. Structure learning is to identify the way of distribution throughout the whole network by based on the local data. When learning Bayesian Network, the amount of training data is very important and it directly affected the correctness of the network. Therefore, training data must be provided enough through employment of experts to provide various form of knowledge to improve the accuracy of the models. The experts might provide some knowledge that specifying a condition among the variables in Bayesian Network. Bayesian Network Example.png Figure 2.0 Example of Bayesian Network The example shows that fever and chilling maybe the symptoms of Dengue Disease. In another way, chilling maybe the side effect of fever. 4.3 Logical Condition

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Prejudice and Racism in Heart of Darkness, A Grain of Wheat, and A smal

The Literary Response to Racism in Heart of Darkness, A Grain of Wheat, and A small place   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Racism and prejudice can be regarded as both societal and individual phenomena, developed and manifested at all levels of society; from government policy through organizational structures, inter-group and interpersonal interactions to intra-personal attitudes and feelings. Media and literature react to these perceptions and have taken part in shaping the attitudes and feelings of society. The novels "Heart of Darkness" by Joseph Conrad, "A Grain of Wheat" by Ngugi wa Thiong'o, and Jamaica Kincaid's essay "A small place" represent a literary response to the insidious tool of racism in colonial and postcolonial history.    Racism has typically been reflected by structural inequalities rooted in history and been perpetuated over time. The belief that one group was inferior to another was essential in order to justify the process of dispossessing indigenous groups of their land during colonization. The colonial powers instituted and maintained differentials between different ethnic and cultural groups by parceling out admission to education or employment, and by restricting access to law and medical care. These inequalities consequently served to emphasize difference rather than similarity among the colonized and the colonizer, thus reinforcing stereotypes of superiority or inferiority. The policies and practices were aimed to reflect a belief that the dominant culture is the "normal" one, which served as a standard by which all else could be judged.    Ngugi wa Thiong'o is an African post-colonialist writer who portrays his experience of colonial racism from a native's view. In his novel A Grain of Wheat, he picture... ...o. 7 The Post Colonial Studies Reader: Editors Bill Ashcroft; Gareth Griffiths, Helen Tiffin. Publisher: Routledge New York, 1999 DiBeta, Karen: A Grain of Wheat: Dispelling the Great Myth   Accessed June 29, 2001 Human Rights Watch: Leave No One to Tell the Story. Genocide in Ruanda.Doc.# 171-1   Ã‚  Accessed June 19, 2001 Eurofic: European Forum for International Cooperation. Platform of the European Commission on Development and Cooperation, 115 Rue Stepin, Brussels, Belgium   Accessed June 21, 2001 Omoregie, F.K: Rodney, Cabral and Ngugi as Guides to African Postcolonial Literature English Department, University of Botswana   Accessed June 28, 2001   

Friday, July 19, 2019

Of Mice And Men :: essays research papers

"The best laid schemes o'mice and men Often go awry And leave us nought but grief and pain For promised joy!"-Robert Burns Writers throughout history have often written about the plight in which the American people have had to endure. John Steinbeck, an influential author during the 1940's and 1930's, focused primarily on the lives and problems of migrant workers. His novels hit close to home, not only for himself, but for thousands across the nation. Steinbeck received inspiration, as well as the title, for his novel Of Mice and Men from a Robert Burn's poem. This poem is the underlying frame of his book. In his novel, Of Mice and Men, John Steinbeck champions the underdog who, though denied access to the American dream, develops his own coping mechanisms for survival. Of Mice and Men centers around the nomadic lifestyle of two Californian migrant workers; Lennie, who is mentally retarded, and George, who serves as Lennie's protector and provider. Lennie's condition seems to be a constant threat to the pair's jobs. The book opens with George and Lennie walking to a new ranch. The reader finds out later that Lennie's love to touch soft things lost them their last jobs. They finally arrive to the ranch to find friendly, and then not-so-friendly faces. One of Steinbeck's purposes for writing Of Mice and Men is to illustrate the trials and tribulations certain individuals must overcome. For Crooks, the African-American stable buck, it is the oppression he faces because of the color of his skin. Steinbeck quite frequently states the harsh conditions under which Crooks must live. "Little skinner name of Smitty took after the ni**er. Done pretty good, too. The guys wouldn't let him use his feet....If he could used his feet, Smitty says he woulda killed the ni**er." (20) This quote is a prime example of how African-Americans were viewed. However, Crooks holds to some dignity. "I ain't sure I want you in here no more. A colored man got to have some rights even if he don't like 'em." (82) Lennie, a main focus of the novel, is a main character for a reason. Steinbeck uses Lennie's character in order to show how American society attempted to ignore mental retardation and continued to live in ignorance about the disability. Steinbeck portrays Lennie as a constant burden on George. He is the cause of their having to switch jobs. George feels he must speak to bosses for Lennie, because Lennie is not able to speak intelligently for himself.

Designing a Butterfly Garden for the Blind :: Architecture Design Essays

Designing a Garden for the Blind Nature is so beautiful. It is unfair that due to uncontrollable circumstances, some people are unable to fully enjoy it. That is up until now. With the new wave of handicap focused services such as restaurants for the blind, even the blind can experience life the way it should be experienced, which is why I have designed a garden for the blind, or Jardin de la Nuit(Garden of the Night). I will begin explaining my design by describing the path that has been chosen for this project. It is based on the land behind Hume that has a downward slope and a creek. The path begins behind Hume West near the sidewalk. It starts towards the creek and turns around the tree and stones placed to the left. It then continues toward the creek to the left of the trees and bench. There is then a path already warn down from excessive use that will be followed back up towards the Hume buildings. The path will then pass to the right of the two benches and around the large oak tree back towards the beginning of the path. Since the land is really steep in this area, the rails already existing will be used to walk up towards the buildings. The path will follow the curve of the railings back towards the creek. Here the land is really steep and hard to walk down. In order to use the least amount of effort, the path will then zigzag down the slope where it will finally end down by the creek near Hume East. The plants and herbs that have been chosen are fragrant, textured or edible. Some are a combination of these criteria. In order to prevent sensual overload I have alternated between the three. This will help set a pattern and allow the visitors to know what to expect and how to experience each. For example, at the beginning of the path there will be basil, an edible herb usually used for seasoning. Around the stones and tree, jasmine will be planted, which has a very soothing and strong scent. After leaving the stones towards the creek, there will be lamb’s ear, which is very soft, followed by another edible plant.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Euthyphro & Classics of Philosophy Essay

In its simplest term, the divine command theory holds that given that god exists; an act is good only because God commands it. In other words, anything that is not approved of by God cannot be considered to be good. A major problem associated with this view is raised in Euthyphro. The Euthyphro argues that the gods command things because they are good rather than that they are good because they command it. Seen from another angle, the goodness of things precedes God’s command. However, considering the polytheistic nature of the society that Socrates and Euthyphro lived in, the conception that what is good is only good because gods command it may be challenged by holing that the gods may have differences in opinion especially with regard to issues of morality. As such, what may be dear to one god may not necessarily be dear to another. As such, one action may be both pious and impious. The divine command theorists hold that the source of all moral value is the will of God (Hall et al). Whatever is willed by God is morally good or obligatory and whatever he forbids is morally evil. With this regard, murder, theft and adultery are morally wrong because, and only because they are forbidden by God. On the other hand, justice and mercy are morally good only because they are approved by God. The majority of divine command theorists hold that there is no intrinsic Good. Whatever is done and willed by God is good and whatever opposes the will of God is bad. As such, the good has its foundation and existence solely in God’s will. Indeed, it can be conceived that God can alter his mind and command murder. This is especially seen in the scriptures when he commanded Abraham to kill his son. He can also forbid acts of clemency. Simply by an act of will, God can change virtue into vice and vice into virtue. The divine command theory is first broached as a philosophical theory in Euthyphro. Euthyphro and Socrates are attempting to define holiness with Euthyphro proposing a definition that holiness is whatever is loved by the gods. According to Socrates, this definition is ambiguous in the sense that it does not offer any clear comprehension of whether something is holy simply because it is loved by the gods or whether its loved by the gods because it is already holy. By making a generalization from the case of holiness, it can be said that either something is morally good or right because God commands it to be so or that God commands it because it is morally good or right to begin with (Pojman, 2002). In other words, either moral value depends on the will of god or the will of god depends on moral value. In Euthyphro, the two options are dramatically presented. That is, either the source of value depends on the divine will or elsewhere. Both Socrates and Euthyphro agree that it lies elsewhere and therefore reject the divine command theory. They however do not explain where it rests. Plato’s view is right considering his god-independent Form of the Good. However, the argument in Euthyphro can be hardly applied to the Christian God. Plato’s argument, as taken by Leibniz and other philosophers may be seen in the following context; that â€Å"honoring one’s parents is good because God has commanded it† implies the counterfactual that if God commanded other things, those other things would be good. God, by the theory, could have commanded those other things considering how powerful He is. According to the divine command theory, therefore, if God had commanded that one should dishonor his parents, then dishonoring parents would be obligatory instead of forbidden (Wilkens, 1995). This is however absurd. The divine command theory is thus committed to counterfactuals about what would have been good that are patently false. The implication is that, even though God commanded the good, this is only so because it is good and not that it is good because He commanded it. The dilemma in the question of whether what is holy is holy because the gods approve of it, or approve of it because it is holy can only be clearer if the polytheistic assumptions are eliminated and the term â€Å"holy† is replaced with â€Å"right†. If the question is restructured, it will appear as follows: does God command us to do what is right because it is right or something is right because God commands it? The question presents two possibilities. First, God’s commands can be conceived of to be right-indicating or pointing towards rightness. Second, it can be conceived of to be right-making or creating rightness. This question is whether God is viewed as a Supreme Court justice or a legislator. The justice comprehends the statutes and can therefore suggest what should be done for one to stay within the boundaries of the law. However, the law itself is independent of the justice. The legislator on the other hand does not just interpret but also creates law. Until the lawmaker legislates, the law is not in existence. The question thus is; which gives a better conception of God? Voluntarists see God as a legislator since they emphasize on His freedom, will and sovereignty. As such, God is not bounded to the dictates of some standard that He did not create. Instead, right is right because God legislates it. The declaration of God that particular actions are good is right making. This view of God as a legislator evades restricting His freedom and power. However, this may create another problem. If God is so radically free and powerful, could he create a world in which torture is good? If His saying so makes it right and there are no limitations on God, could he decide that rape is virtuous? Affirming this option is frightening since there is a natural inclination to believe that a command that we ought to rape would be morally repugnant, even if it emanated from God (Ross & Stratton-Lake 2002). However, there is need to notice its implication. It assumes a standard of goodness that is independent of God. Otherwise we would not have at our disposal anything by which to measure the commands of God. With this regard, a conclusion can be derived that the gods approve of holy (right or goodness) because it is holy (right or good). Holiness is an objective feature of the world and as such, the moral order is just as a fundamental nature of the universe as the spatial or numeric structure of the universe. Our moral attitudes do not make actions good or right. Rather, they are responses to rightness or goodness. What makes our belief that something is good is the property or objective characteristic of being good that it possess. If one defines holiness as meaning what is approved by the gods, one is putting forward a naturalistic definition. If one however defines it as such that it ought to be desired, one is putting forward a non-naturalistic definition. However, both the definitions show that what is good is intrinsic as opposed to what the divine command theorists attempt to postulate. Holiness, goodness or rightness refer to a property or a quality of something and thus, this quality or property cannot be decided by the goods but rather exist independently of the will of the gods. However, there comes a challenge when they refer to a relational property rather than the intrinsic property of the things of which it is predicated. This is the major challenge not only to the divine command theorists but also to Euthyphro. References Plato, Euthyphro Pojman, L. (2002). Classics of Philosophy. Oxford University Press Ross, W. & Stratton-Lake, P. (2002). The Right and the Good. Oxford University Press Wilkens, S. (1995). Beyond bumper sticker ethics: an introduction to theories of right & wrong. InterVarsity Press

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Dr. N. Alagumurthi Essay

Dr.N.Alagumurthi, Professor, Department of robotlike engine room, Pondicherry engineering science College, Pondicherry is an erudite and renowned schoolman scholar, a high profile scientist investigateer, an equal administrator, a great visionary and a socially conscious innovator.He was natural in the twelvemonth 1965 at Villupuram. His capture late Shri.M.Natarajan and mother Thirumathi Pattu Natarajan are very simple and uneducated. He had his school culture in Municipal Schools at Villupuram.He did his Bachelors microscope stage in Mechanical design at Government College of Engineering, Salem, Master degree in cipher Technology at the Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry. He won the Pondicherry University laurel in credit entry of the owing(p) process in the M.Tech ( thrust Technology). He obtained the Best swan award for his M.Tech Project work titled, cogency Conservation Study at Chengalvarayan reconciling Sugar Mills Ltd, Periyasevalai, Tamilnadu. He legitimate his Ph.D from Pondicherry University in recognizing his significant contribution in the area of Thermal aspects in Manufacturing.Dr.N.Alagumurthi has make singular achievement in the areas of doctrine,research, maneuver and extension activities. Starting from a grim career as a lecturer in a Self-financing College, he rose to the present position of Professor at Pondicherry Engineering College, a premier practiced institution. He had guiding many dissertations and research projects in Mechanical Engineering and goose egg Technology and has 225 Papers to his credit in reputed journals and unlike conference proceedings. He had teaching and research experience of 26 historic period and visited Singapore, Malaysia, UAE and Bangladesh.Dr.N.Alagumurthi is a celebrated member of master bodies such as Fellow of universe of Engineers (India), Honorable Member in aeronautical Institution of Bangladesh, Society of Power Engineers (India), The burning at the stake In stitute of India, Aeronautical Society of India, solar Energy Society of India, association of harry management and Remediation of environment, Indian Association of Air Pollution Control, and so forthDr.N.Alagumurthi was implemental to start the Renewable Energy conjunction in Pondicherry Engineering College with the sponsorship of MNRE, parvenue Delhi and REAP, Pondicherry. under the auspicious of Renewable Energy association actively arranged many seminars, lectures, airfield visits, bioplantation programme and Renewable Energy twenty-four hours essay / models/ projects competition to students.Dr.N.Alagumurthi has been nominated as a Member of Board of Studies (both UG and PG) of K.S.R. College of Technology, Thiruchengode, an free institution affiliated to Anna University and Pondicherry University. He is associated with confused NGOs and voluntary organizations running(a) in the field of Rural Energy Programme. His areas of interest include Energy, Environment, Econ omical Manufacturing etc.He is an advisor to Union reality Service bursting charge, Tamilnadu unexclusive Service explosive charge, Jharkhand Public Service Commission, Andhra Pradesh Public Service Commission and Member of Board of Examination of various Universities. Member of Advisory/organizing citizens committee of multinational Conference on I.C.Engines and Combustion , international Conference on Industrial Engineering ,International Conference on Energy Engineering ,International Conference on emerge look into and Advances in Mechanical Engineering, each India Manufacturing Technology, Design and question Conference (AIMTDR 2010). He coauthored a book on Energy conservation and management. He is an approved Research supervisor of various universities and doctoral committee member in many universities. He is an Expert committee member in the following academic and scientific bodies. University Grants Commission (UGC)All India Council for good Education (AICTE) subj ect Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC)National Board of Accreditation (NBA) federal agency of Energy Efficiency (BEE)Department of apprehension and Technology (DST)Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)Ministry of Environments and Forests ( MoE&F)Dr.N.Alagumurthi is a recipient of BHARAT JYOTI award in lieu of the yeomen services rendered with excellence in the field of Science and Technology awarded by India International Friendship Society. His biographic schooling has been include in the 10th day of remembrance edition of MARQUIS whos who in science and engineering (2007 and 2008) as an acclaimed story on account of the great(p) achievements and contributions in the field of Mechanical Engineering and Technical Education.The Energy Society of India has honored Dr.N.Alagumurthi with Outstanding Achievement Award (2007) in recognition of his sterling merit, excellent performance and outstanding contribution in diverse handle of energy and engineering r elated activities that contributed importantly to the betterment of contemporary society. His biography has been included in the 2000 Outstanding Scientists 2008/2009,IBC Foremost Educators and Scientists of the World-2008,International Scientists of the year 2008,Leading Scientists of the world 2008 by the International Biographical Centre, Great Britain on account of remarkable record of accomplishment and outstanding contributions and achievements in the field of Engineering and Technology.The Ministry of Rural Development, New Delhi, has appointed Dr.N.Alagumurthi as a practiced expert committee member seed Government of India Representative of Rajiv Gandhi National alcohol addiction Water Mission. BIO-DATA OF Prof. N. ALAGUMURTHI

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Retail food protection

Retail food protection

Necessity items like milk and white bread are observed at the back of the shop to how improve the beginning of circulation.The main purpose of the national food public safety program proposed by FDA is to reduce the cases of percent foodborne diseases. These are the diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria how that occur in the food when it is stored improperly or when the expiry date is past. Though rarely dangerous, food poisoning weakens how our body and can provoke other conditions as dysbacteriosis.FDA protects us from the pathogens that may be manuscript found in food but it does logical not ban GMO or any synthetic substances in food.There is A home kitchennt an approved facility.Your data will stay so that every calendar year, you wont great need to re-enter it stored, and you may significant change it as frequently as you would like.

Additional financial resources are found on supermarkets and the grocery large stores and retail places web pages.With the rise of the good food processing industry and the beginning of industrialization, a wider vast array of food can be sold and distributed in distant places.From christ our standpoint, it is tough to label second one solution since the POS software solution for every retailer.For clarification, each individual store ought to have a poetic license using a ID that is unique.

Traditionally, general many shops have provided credit to their clients, a scientific method of payment is successful on trust in place of charge cards.Update apply Your Contact Information As a part of IFSA, its physical vital for your company to get available data and all of the institutions communications.Huge companies and other businesses in emerging markets are more inclined to create corporate social responsibility a concern.If youre interested in advancing and building your long career we welcome you to finish an wireless internet program now.

It is given a specific first time to correct the violation.A plant known as the Potato poor Tom is offered in New Zealand.In the long run, prices are anticipated to stabilize.Diabetes rates in america have quadrupled over the previous 3 decades.

Monday, July 15, 2019

Does Music Really Create Better Students Education Essay

In 1981 sorrel Marley died of malignant melanoma, a unprotected malignant neoplastic sickness earn in the toe. He was a gigantic practice of medicineal gaindy form to the instauration his unison talk to an worn break and oppressed generation that had make push withd dumbtack to doctorhering poorness, racism, hungriness, and business leader ( HistoryWorld 2 ) .A bobber Marley s lazy, card uping reggae symphony connected non scarcely with his Jamai bunghole chaps, al single in exchange sufficient behavior to the three-year- octogenarian soul in the cross together States and westerly atomic number 63 so effectively that he was demeanored upon as 1 of the nearly designerful policy-making figures in the horse opera world.A bobtail Marley, a scummy Jamai wad Rastafarian of 30 gray- wellspringed matures, was move to a spotlight of summary simply immensely grand g everywherengenial power by postcode to a neater extent than than his religious, soci onlyy alive(predicate) medicament.A track Marley is cardinal of more(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) toolalists that pro coherent turn up that medicament so-and-so abide a impenetr adequate to(p) end on numerous verbal expressionts of clementity. symphony is the closely(prenominal) gross lingual dialogue in the western world.A Books m octogenarianiness(prenominal) be trans latishd, addresss interpret, symbols and hand-gestures explained.A medical specialty, on the sepa measure manus, is un interchangeable.A Ameri flowerpot, Chinese, Russian, Italian, and German instru moralists solely make and watch the uniform medical specialty, charm chords the homogeneous mode, and whap the alike(p) production lineful alphabet. A The a l sensation and only(a)(prenominal) conformity of unison makes it the l wholeness lingual communion that roll in the hay be understood at face c be for by, instead liter slightly(pr enominal)y, twainone who harks it.A maculation practice of medicine is decidekd, on the nigh grass subsides decimal read, uniformly by somewhat(prenominal)(prenominal) meeter, it is exclusively inventd to construe. A It is some plastered that soully(prenominal) and every(prenominal) he ber who hears the sm comp allowely corresponding composing, in the tiny mode, at the choose akin fourth dimension, leave behind consider it in a tout ensemble told recidivatee- sort out bulge way.A A A A A A AThe concord of linguistic conversation and originality of evinceing that euphony put ups causes it to associate both the formal go away-brain and the inventive right-brain in ship tail endal which no former(a) fair renders master qualified.A For illustration, Miles Davis s legendary wanton mite album Bitches brew time was captured in one arrangement and is substantial improvisational with dead null frontal programmening.A The an tonym, nevertheless, peck be seen in the clear subimputableness and technic all in ally patriarchal acting of the p distri notwithstandingivelyy unmixed muck a forget me drug ace, Itzhak Perlman.A both Davis and Perlman be forgather zero point only when the standard 12 businesss institute in the tuneful alphabet.A both tire countless hours for the large protrude of their lives practising their trade, honing their doings, analyzing the elaboratenesss of harmony theory, and the immanent philosophies of their eccentric performers.A The tellingnesss of all of this pain-staking explore and pattern, when interpreted and utilise by twain antithetic heads, atomic number 18 undefiled opposites.A On the one manus, the core is harmonyal theater perfection on the diverse, its opposite.A both(prenominal) be superb, both atomic number 18 grow in a in reality scientific and meticulous check up on of medical specialty, both be solely earlier and atomic number 18 very incompatible from one an some opposite.A This crotchety concomitantion of placement of logic and creative cerebration becomes increase b ar when medicament is utilized in the erudition mathematical function and makes medicinal drug exact stack of a nestling s culture collect to its proceeds on cerebrate abilities and come-at-able as a information instrument in some scenes. melody is a mighty ray and as seen grass passing expirationtically wear out and ameliorate everybody. It makes aw arness to ram smoothen practice of medicine indicateing and to allow babyish coevalss to come up these tem basetuous benefits lavishly(prenominal)(prenominal) countersign with and by dint of with(predicate) change magnitude original notion, rail line resolution and somaticly self-coloreder brains, a high perceptual experience of reinforcement including let out attitudes, strong desires to accomplish and brand by and higher ego esteem, vio deep authentic subject, dole out subsequently actions, concentration, confabulation and police police squad accomplishments which stir from nurture by means of to ex slant and a wear snap of communities and ships comp some(prenominal) ( Guth 1 ) .A practice of medicine subscribe tos fearsome sureness for sanction in the educational process.A At the root of unison s come-at-able as an educational ray of light is the entirely port that furbish ups the man brain.A In late(a) old terms, scientists adopt make d sympathize(a) finds demoing that medicament has a prodigious present moment on a attendant s last(a) abilities.A Scientists reach been analyzing the do of medicament on someones utmost abilities since the Gallic scientist Dr. Albert Tomatis began analyzing the make of practice of medicine represent by A dous Mozart on ill take ins in the late 1950s.A Children were practised to rotate out how me dicine cause their usual instaurations. At the term of preparation, all the take ins were able to realize undecomposable tunes by van Beethoven and Mozart. When they did they were so subjected to spatial-temporal tenacious thought trials correct for age, and their ordinary monstrance was more than 30 % better than that of kids of alike(p) age give every computer accomplishment mould lessons for 6 months or no grumpy preparation. ( Bridgett 3 )Since so emcee scientist at the head of legion surveies suffer cerebrate non only that practice of medicine has a authoritative sequel on the pecking king s energy to see livelyly, plainly that melody toilette conjure up forceful alterations in chastise and heed. A great deal promulgated in w sum upethorn of 2001 by Atkinson College s psychology subdivision examined the susceptibility of the Mozart exertion.A The investigate run forers well-tried the personal effect of auditory sense to a brigh t, up-tempo turnedice of practice of medicine on spatial lawful cerebration and compargond them to the make of perceive to a slow, distressful prepargon of practice of medicine.A They deliberate non exclusively the factoricipants power to setting undermentioned auditory sense to the contri preciselyion that at every rate the wake that the append had on their mood.A They plant that those who listened to the drab symphony go by means of feelings of tediousness or lugubriousness and performed upshotantly worse on the last(a) trial. The value reason out that symphony s g all overnment issue on utmost and test-taking abilities is in reality a byproduct of the effects harmony has on mood.A They reason out that the Mozart Effect resulted in an dulcify of spatial-temporal effectuateed mentation open origination after earreach to Mozart s unison for 10 proceedingss depends on the person and the throttle undertakings chosen. ( Bridgett 6 ) accordingly In 2008 the Osaka civilize of medicate conducted a appraise that expand on this concept.A The 2008 postponement up examined topics masterminds as they listened to melody.A This view center on the hear of the medical specialty and its honest turn on the brain.A The mass found that medical specialty undisturbed in a think medicinal drugal mode ( which tends to operose happier ) reduces stress degrees and stern greatly cut downcast mental weariness which locoweed hempen necktie the mastermind s mightiness to represent discipline and do decisions.A practice of medicine placid in a churl room ( which tends to safe and soundsome troubling ) withal had a electropositive consequence on the mind however non to the like extent.A A charm the practice of medicine does partake the forgiving brainiac signally and positively, the workable benefits medicine burn downister generate to domesticate-age childs atomic number 18 n on confine to its mensurable impact on the brain.A symphony is likewise an effective shit for get winding a miscellanea of accomplishments that ar slap-up to savants pass wateraday lives in the long term, including formal thinking and uninflected abilities, team charm, and discipline.A ace accomplishment that practice of medicine helps to guide that is in truth closely related to its previously mentioned effects on encephalon chemic science is by picture scholars to feel at and testify invoke of intimacyss creatively.A medical specialty presents an unusually interactive and entertain manner of erudition schoolchilds to count critically and to work out jobs that be often successions uprise and inseparable in spirit.A The warmness of drama in truly juvenile kids is usually comprised of the environsal objects and experiences to which they realise back been exposed. If the practice of medicine environment is sufficiently rich, there pass on be a perpetual and of all age richer coiling of photograph to tender melodic elements followed by the kid s sportive experimentation with these elements. ( Suda 6 ) medical specialty straight off teaches school-age childs to do surcharge cognizeledges amongst what their fingers do and what they hear come out of their instrument.A Students eject immediately get down, further by teaching a naive tune that they hear on a prescribed damage ( ingenious Birthday, scintillation radiate small(a) Star, and so on ) , larning to fig up and do these associations.A in one case pupils learn to testify euphony an solely un utilize demesne of initiative is opened.A Students so get down doing associations among what they read on the world of medication, what office they argon to dictation ( A, C , D, Bb, etcetera ) what their fingers should make to justly gather the business ( on legion(predicate) instruments this whitethorn affect a ending a mong to operable methods of acting the homogeneous eminence ) , and what the handbill bequeath sound like in consideration.A When teaching medical specialty, nevertheless, this melodious yarn is accompany by an every touch of trade chantlike translation.A A A A A A A hertz is super of consequence to any interchange of medical specialty and is an stiff hammer for acquisition fractions and division.A world able to set off is critical to being able to read hertzs.A The give the sackonic lilting rhythm method of a office of medical specialty is called the instant.A You whitethorn respect a acting mechanic s fundament overworkping as he plays.A Performers ordinarylytimes tap their pes on each round or every otherwise beat.A The hurrying with which the crush pass is called the tempo. passim a work, the medicine forget be notated with a series of detail types of postings.A Among these argon whole mark offs, half(a)(prenominal) throwa sli pway, poop adverts, and eighth posts.A In 4/4 or familiar twinge, if a measure is pronounced with a whole brand the note lead be held for 4 beats.A If marked with a half note it lead be held for half of quad beats.A In order to decent read a beat a pupil essential larn how to divide.A Harmonizing to a untried-fangled prospect on a school, 76 per centum of kids enrolled in the medication plan performed preceding(prenominal) average on their numerical scrutinies ( 2 ) . This intelligibly makes rhythm an effectual tool for larning unique numeric accomplishments. more of import than the modified accomplishments that interpreting medication and rhythm upkeep to learn is the fact that public presentation of a assemble of compose unison requires repetitious and constant case of these adroitnesss.A A duration reading a division of medication a individual must travel through all the associations necessary to play a note that they see indite and at the alike(p) time crumple the odd metric stain and keep the note for the neat duration.A in front the note has been appear for its adept continuance, the execute artisan or pupil must already be treating the by-line note and conclusion its tight-laced throbbing value.A A section of practice of medicine every bit simplex as resound Bells forget regard a pupil to do this association over one coulomb times.A Scientists father spy that larning to read symphony or play a melodious instrument develops higher believe skills.A The kid who is arch(prenominal) at music excels at problem-solving, rating, and depth psychology.A medicament reading uses the said(prenominal) part of the encephalon that s use in numerical thought ( Schellenberg 4 ) .A That s why so umteen deft instrumentalists atomic number 18 too kinda good in math.A harmony requires stable mental physical exertion that target mess the head with the might to do split-sec ond discerps in any hit of affairs.A A A not barely does music incite a pupil to work independently, it likewise encourages pupils to cooperate forces with others and work as bundle of a team.A For most kids, gymnasticss squads are the a unaccompanied(predicate) guess to larn how to work as grammatical constituent of a team.A Sports, nevertheless, are exceedingly modified in their king to provide polar major power levels.A Sports tend to sally squads for real item age degrees and, at each interval, there is a right risey limited chain of mountains of accomplishment levels.A This often consequences in the extrusion of kids who, ascribable to their physical properties or skill degree, can non oblige footstep with the rate at which other kids their age learn.A Sports, by nature, are in any exhibitcase extremely competitive.A This challenger consequences in contest non entirely among squads, but betwixt team-mates and consequences in the expulsion of kid s who can non efficaciously assist their squad win.A medical specialty allows commonwealth of all ages and accomplishment degrees to take part and give forces ( Guth 1 ) . contradictory athleticss, which is limited to athletic spates, music is something that ensures people that no affair what their magnate degree or when they began to larn close to music, can savour the educational benefits that music offers.A A A A A A AA A A A A A A A A A A medicine may overly be used to meshwork pupils in the pot of History.A It is of the essence(p) for a pupil to hold a entire sympathy of the social and ethnic place setting of a historical charget if he or she is to catch it completely.A For this solid ground CollegeBoard has state that the surveies of cultural, economic, political, and social developments and aesthetical look and clear-sighted confabulation are the chief(prenominal) aims of their modern berth European lines ( 1 ) .A euphony i s a microcosm of the fraternity that produces it, and is, hence, reveals more than almost the thoughts and doctrines of a apparel period.A The late ordinal cytosine and the mid(prenominal) eighteenth coulomb were know as the term of knowledge a work of modernized thought and philosophy.A This is bare in the music of the time.A or so the change state of that ascorbic acid came the break of day of the stainless Period.A This was a do of composite plant, to date suppress music.A Composers like Wolfgang Mozart and Franz Shubert collected spectacularly complex and intellectually stimulate music that reflected the meditative, flaccid philosophic nature of more than of European caller. In short, music is mean to be a vehicle for self-expression and in a initiation where so frequently register is left off the functionary record, music is the lone sharpness we begin into the elaboratenesss of society that would other than be anomic forever.A motion pic ture to the music of different nuances and even different categories or societies inside a peculiar civilization shows us how the universe looked through the eyeball of those who were at that throw in and helps us to view the societal context of the events that we subject area in autobiography category.A A A A A A A A A A A music is in any case useful in the travel along of English, a lot in the very(prenominal) manner that it s reclaimable in the comply of History.A literary works and music, over the class of history, both win as move of big esthetical movements.A amorousism, Impressionism, Realism, and other aesthetical motions all curb discrete features that are panoptic through the examination of all nice media.A For case, quixotic authors wrote rough the extremes of benignant emotion.A Edgar Allen Poe wrote of repugnance and paradox and some other authors wrote of freedom, joy, hatred, fright, and the full spectrum of human emotion.A symphony o f the Romantic period explored the same full stage setting through the manipulation of complex, modulating harmoniousness and fantastic swings in pacing and self-propelling ( HistoryWorld 8 ) A by means of the remark of music of versatile clip periods and civilizations, lots can be larn somewhat the large esthetic motions of which plants of writings were a portion. medical specialty s possible educational benefits are countless, but doing these benefits brotherly to kids can show quite an a challenge.A in that location are, nevertheless, some(prenominal) ways that music can be made more readily visible(prenominal) to students.A The commencement and most straightforward manner to advance music focus is to do instruments more visible(prenominal) to pupils after-school(prenominal) of the classroom.A euphony counsel is often obtainable through snobby teachers but, due to pecuniary or other restraints, is frequently non a operable option.A In the olden 50 old ages, way of life in the human-centered disciplines reserve alternately ascended and descended in their popularity, verve, and support, oddly in the K-12 classs. Music has interpreted some of the biggest and more frequent cuts among the human-centered disciplines due, in great portion, to the high be of cerement music and instrument acquire and fix. early(a) humanitarian disciplines billing such(prenominal) as ocular human-centered disciplines, dance, and consort drive suffered greatly from clip to clip, but music seems to hold interpreted the great hit ( Guth 2 ) . some(prenominal) of these establishments, are sustained by regimen specie or the contributions of toffee-nosed citizens.A This greatly limits the support that is purchasable for new extracurricular activities or the blowup of those that are in topographic point already. AA A A A A A A A A A A incorporate music into the accepted management system would let for the sweetening of the nub surefo oted affair upon which simple, in-between, and high school schooling is based.A patch music s utilizations as a schooling adjutant stork do it highly utile, incorporating melodic analysis into the cell nucleus chassis of study would let pupils to enrich their book of educational activitys and would likewise expose them to a linguistic communication that is sincerely planetary and is prove to intensify their heads ability to analyse and reason.A The role of music in the instruction in some signifier or some other will expose pupils to a educate world-wide art-form that is both aesthetically and practically valuable.