Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Team Sports Essay A team sport includes any sportwhich involves players working together towards a shared objective. It is an activity in which a group of individuals, on the same team, work together to accomplish an ultimate goal which is usually to win. This can be done in a number of ways such as outscoring the opposing team. Team members set goals, make decisions, communicate, manage conflict, and solve problems in a supportive, trusting atmosphere in order to accomplish their objectives. This can be seen in sports such as hockey,football, American football, baseball, association football, basketball, volleyball, tennis, water polo, lacrosse, rowing, rugby league, rugby union, cricket, handball and many others. Different kinds of team sports * Basketball * Volleyball * Baseball * Football * American football * British baseball * Beach volleyball * Sepak takraw * Airsoft * Ultimate * Underwater rugby Volleyball Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other teams court under organized rules It has been a part of the official program of the Summer Olympic Games since 1964. Objectives of volleyball PUT THE BALL INTO PLAY Every volleyball point starts with one team serving the ball and the other team receiving it. The serving team must clear the ball over the net and in bounds, and the receiving team must return over the net and in bounds before it hits the ground. Before the match begins, the referee will conduct a coin toss to determine which team serves first and on which side of the court each team begins the match. Win the Rally To score a point in volleyball, you must win a rally or have your opponent commit a fault. The rally begins with the serve and ends as soon as the ball hits the ground. If the serving team wins the rally, it receives 1 point and retains service. If the receiving teams wins the rally, it receives 1 point and gains service. Faults occur whenever one team breaks a rule of the game. If both teams commit a fault at the same time, you replay the rally with neither team receiving a point. Win the Set The first team to score 25 points in a set, except for the fifth set, wins that set. You must win a set by at least 2 points, however, so play continues until one team has a lead of two points after reaching 25. Win the Match To win a match, you must win three out of five sets. If each team wins two of the first four sets, your final set will go to 15 points instead of 25. Teams must still win the final set by at least 2 points, so play continues past 15 until one team achieves this. In a tournament, teams will play only three sets, so the first team to win two sets wins the match. If a tournament requires a playoff to determine which team advances, you will play a one-set playoff. Tournament organizers will predetermine whether you play the set to 15 or 25 points and you must win by 2 points. Defense: Rational defense As the name suggests, players rotate into their read position based on how the play is developing. For instance, if the opponent sets to its outside hitter, the middle front and right-side front players block. The outside blocker stays home and covers the rest of the front court. The right back defender edges up behind the blockers to pick up balls tipped over them. The left back is responsible for the deep angle ball. The middle back rotates to the same sideline where the ball was set. The rotation changes if the opponent sets to its right-side hitter or the middle hitter. Perimeter defense In the perimeter defense, players start in the same base position as in rotational defense. But as the play unfolds, there is less movement into the read positions. This is a good defense to dig out hard-driven balls. It is more vulnerable to tips, relying on players to take away those plays with their athletic ability. As such, it is more popular with mens teams with more size and range. Man Up or Red Defense As the name suggests, the man up or red defense moves a back player up to support the front three players. This protects the middle of court from middle attacks and tips. It keeps the wing players deep. This formation minimizes the movement from base position to defensive zone. The deeper base positions allow players to keep most plays in front of them. Fine-Tuning the Schemes Within these basic concepts, countless adjustments can be made to suit the ability of the team. Hybrid defensive schemes are common. As volleyball coaching legend Bill Neville once said, Defense should be designed so that it allows for putting the best diggers in areas that will most often be attacked. Brief history of volleyball In 1995, the sport of Volleyball was 100 years old! The sport originated in the United States, and is now just achieving the type of popularity in the U.S. that it has received on a global basis, where it ranks behind only soccer among participation sports. Today there are more than 800 million players worldwide who play Volleyball at least once a week. In 1895, William G. Morgan, an instructor at the Young Mens Christian Association (YMCA) in Holyoke, Mass., decided to blend elements of basketball, baseball, tennis, and handball to create a game for his classes of businessmen which would demand less physical contact than basketball. He created the game of Volleyball (at that time called mintonette). Morgan borrowed the net from tennis, and raised it 6 feet 6 inches above the floor, just above the average mans head. During a demonstration game, someone remarked to Morgan that the players seemed to be volleying the ball back and forth over the net, and perhaps volleyball would be a more descriptive name for the sport. On July 7, 1896 at Springfield College the first game of volleyball was played. * In 1900, a special ball was designed for the sport. * In 1916, in the Philippines, an offensive style of passing the ball in a high trajectory to be struck by another player (the set and spike) were introduced. * In 1917, the game was changed from 21 to 15 points. * In 1920, three hits per side and back row attack rules were instituted. * In 1930, the first two-man beach game was played. * In 1934, the approval and recognition of national volleyball referees. * In 1947, the Federation Internationale De Volley-Ball (FIVB) was founded. * In 1948, the first two-man beach tournament was held. * In 1949, the initial World Championships were held in Prague, Czechoslovakia. * In 1964, Volleyball was introduced to the Olympic Games in Tokyo. * In 1974, the World Championships in Mexico were telecast in Japan. * In 1987, the FIVB added a Beach Volleyball World Championship Series. * In 1990, the World League was created. * In 1995, the sport of Volleyball was 100 years old! * In 1996, 2-person beach volleyball was added to the Olympics While serving, coaches may make more zones to serve to so that they can make the other team move and force a bad pass. Some people determine zones according to the net. These are where their sets are going to go in the offensive. Basic skills in volleyball Volleyball play is comprised of the following basic components: passing, setting, spiking, blocking, serving, and receiving serve. * Passing is the act of sending the volleyball to a setter so that he or she can, in turn, present the ball to the spiker for an attack. The two primary passing methods are the bump and the dig. * Setting the ball is a critical area of the overall offensive attack. If the set is poorly placed, it can dramatically lower the effectiveness of even versatile spikers, because it limits their hitting options and their likelihood of hitting a kill shot for a point or sideout. Conversely, a well-delivered set gives a hitter a much better chance to avoid blocks and direct the ball strategically. * Spiking is the act of driving the volleyball hard into an area of your opponents court. The two basic power shots are the cross-court shot and the baseline shot.Once an opponent has developed a healthy respect for a teams spiking power, alternative offensive shots such as tips and dinks can be employed with greater effectiveness. * Blocking is the primary defensive skill used to neutralize strong spiking attacks. It involves using players arms to form a wall in front of the spiker, thus making it more difficult for him or her to hit the ball into the opposite court. When properly executed, a good block can be an effective weapon in scoring points or securing sideouts. In high-level competition, teams commonly employ more than one blocker against good spikers. * Serving is a very important element of volleyball. A server who can serve the ball reliably and skillfully will help his or her team far more than will a player who, for instance, is inconsistent with their serving. There are a variety of serves that are employed in competitive volleyball, from floaters that seem to shimmy and shake on their way over the net to hard-driven jump serves. * Receiving the serve is vital to success for any team. Poor reception of service puts teams hoping to get a sideout at a huge disadvantage right from the beginning. If the person receiving the serve is unable to make a good pass to the setter, then the setters task of setting a good ball to the spiker is made that much more difficult. Receiving the serve sets the tone, then, for the whole offensive sequence that follows.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Learning is for everyone Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The institution called a university, or many times a community college, is an institution that should welcome anyone who is willing to make the effort to face the challenges that it brings. As William A. Henry III writes, “In the real world, though, mostly people go to college to make money';(The Museum of Clear Ideals, 146). I point out that there are a variety of different reasons for which people choose to enter into college. Some of these reasons do include the ability to make a higher income. But many also do so to learn a particular function or get a better understanding of a specific field, or to have an overall deeper knowledge of the world around us. Despite the reasoning behind it, the university experience is one that should be experienced by all. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The types of university courses are changing to reflect today’s society. It does vary from college to college, but quite often today a student can just about customize his or her own degree program. This allows someone to study a particular subject or learn more about the area of study that he or she prefers, rather than choosing from a limited amount of concentrations. This evolution within the college cirriculum is excellent especially for those who prefer a career that does not require a degree, but would like to study nonetheless. One should be free to learn what one chooses. Many colleges also allow people to take courses without necessarily being matriculated in a degree program. This is helpful for those taking courses such as foreign languages, basic business, or even arts and crafts-related courses. The idea of the community college is superb, allowing those who don’t have a lot of money to spend on such an investment the opportunity to study at a lower cost. These colleges are also less severe about whom they let in. For example, if someone who did not do well in high school and therefore did not foresee nor have the desire to go to college following graduation, he or she may still be accepted at a community college even years after high school is over. These institutions also tend to accept students who obtained only average grades and therefore did not qualify for more prestige universities. “For American society, the big lie underlying higher education is akin to…that everyone can be above average'; (The Museum of Clear Ideas, 147).
Monday, January 13, 2020
Malnutrition in children is one of the most important social and health problem that face the young children in the modern world. Whether it is in the developed world or the under developed world, nutrition among the children has evolved to be a very important issue. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s children are faced with numerous physical, emotional, mental, spiritual and health challenges due to malnutrition. While a child in a poor neighborhood in Africa is sleeping hungry, a child in a middle class neighborhood in the United States is over indulging in unhealthy junk foods. Malnutrition is therefore an important social and health problem in all parts of the world. There is however a misconception that malnutrition in children only affects children in poor society where there is wide spread hanger, but this is no longer true. The over indulgence of unhealthy junk foods which are deficient in essential nutrients such as vitamin, poor living conditions, malabsorption and inadequate access to nutritional education and information on healthy eating are some of the many factors that force parents to make wrong choices in the quality of food they serve their children. Consequently, the number of children suffering from nutritional deficiency and related health complication such as obesity, poor growth and development and diseases has increased significantly. It is the role of the government through the relevant agencies and department to implement nutritional education through a national education strategy to ensure that the general public is well informed on the good eating habits as well as the consequences of malnutrition especially in young children (Dalton, 2005). Causes of Malnutrition in children Malnutrition is an important health problem in children due to its impacts on their growth and development. It is a condition that results from deficiency of essential nutrients such as vitamins, mineral salts and protein among others which are needed for the maintenance of health body functioning. Malnutrition can either occur as a result of under or over nourishment of a child with particular nutrients. Therefore majority of children suffer from malnutrition in the developed world today because of dietary imbalance rather than the deficiency of nutrient as it is common in the under developed world. Malnutrition can be caused by several factors which include poor diet and lack of adequate education on health eating habits. a) Diet One of the major causes of nutritional imbalance among children is the diet. Either parents influence their children directly or indirectly into improper selection of food or the modern society has over indulged in junk foods. Due to numerous promotions and advertisements in the mass media, children find fast foods more desirable. These may be snacked crisps, parked cakes and biscuit and other ready to eat meals. These fast foods have poor quality nutrients and ingredients which are manufactured to look special using large amount of fats and sugars, artificial preservative and additives which have negative effects on the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s health. There is no doubt that jack foods are processed food, ready to eat. These foods pass through the factories where the essential goodness of natural foods is removed and replaced with artificial additives and sweeteners. It is interesting to note that despite these fast foods having a long list of additives and preservatives on their labels in the name of ingredients, parents continues feeding their children in these foods. Moreover, many of the ingredients in junk foods such as fats, sugars, salts and additives are unhealthy to the children. The short term and long-term of such ingredients are well known. Junk foods are also deficient in essential dietary components such as fiber, minerals and vitamins which are very essential in growth and development in children. The dietary imbalance in children as a result of junk food is very event in the American society today (French, et al, 2001). It is important to note that one of the major causes of malnutrition in children is the choices of foods. Either knowingly or unknowingly, parents buy their children junk foods which are deficient in essential nutrients but have high level of unhealthy ingredients. There are several reasons that make individuals to make bad choices of foods. It is also important to note that the parent may not feed his children on junk food but end up preparing food that is unhealthy to the child due to bad choices. In many cases, especially in the underdeveloped world, parents may be forced by circumstances to make wrong choices for the foods they give their children. Poverty and food insecurity in some poor countries leaves parents with very limited choices of food resulting into malnutrition in children. Food prices in the developed world may also force poor parents to make wrong choices of foods. However, the most important factor that determines the food choice parent give to their children is the level of education and the nutritional information held by the parent (Hills, et al, 2007). b) Education Research indicates that many children are malnourished not because of unavailability of food and essential dietary components but because of the information held by parents and guardians. People who have the responsibility of providing their children with food have very little or no information on the quality of food they are expected to give their children. For example, the food and agricultural organization has argued that about 80 percent of malnourished individuals especially children live in areas around the world that have sufficient food supplies. Although poverty and food prices are also important factors, the level of information on implications of unhealthy eating habits is an important factor. In the American society, children are not malnourished because of inadequate food supplies but because of the choices of food. Children in America and other developed countries are increasingly becoming obese due uptake of unhealthy foods. There are no proper mechanisms of educating parents on health eating habits in children which as resulted into the society relying in misinformation from promotions and advertisements in the mass media. For example, inadequate breast feeding in infants is one of the major causes of nutritional imbalance in young children. Although there are many factors that contribute to poor breastfeeding such as changing lifestyles and job demands, lack of education on its importance on the health of the child id the most important factor (Hills, et al, 2007). Effects of Malnutrition in Children a) Obesity Over the years, obesity in children in the American society has reached epidemic levels. The percentage of children suffering from obesity in the American society has risen from below five percent in 1960s to over twenty percent today. Obesity has evolved from a condition that was in the past common among the rich families to a problem in the entire society. The number of children from poor families and middle class families suffering from obesity has increased significantly. Due to the increased prevalence of obesity among the young population, it has been rated as one of the most important health concern (Peter, 2005). The principle cause of obesity in children is unhealthy eating habits. Other factors may include genetic makeup, medical and psychological factors as well as lifestyles. The parents eating habits has been considered to be the biggest influence that play a significant role in the development of obesity in young people. Consequently, over weight parents have over weight children not because of genetic makeup but due to poor eating habits. Doctors have confirmed that the parents are not feeding their children with the right food which resulting into nutritional imbalance. The increased dependence on junk food as well as sedentary lifestyles adopted in the western world where children have not time for physical exercise has created a nation where a third of the children are over weight. This may be a time bomb since this creates a generation that will be faced with numerous health complications such as diabetes, high blood cholesterol and heart diseases (Dietz, 1998). b) Diseases Inadequate supply of essential dietary nutrients to the body in children is exhibited in various forms of diseases and disorders. It is important to note that the world health organization maintains that malnutrition and related complications is the most important health problem facing children in the world being the largest cause of child mortality globally, either directly or indirectly. Majority of malnutrition diseases are caused by lack or inadequate supply of essential nutrients. These diseases include marasmus, kwashiorkor, anemia and hyponatremia to mention but a few. Marasmus is caused by calories deficient, kwashiorkor by acute protein deficient, anemia by lack of iron and hyponatremia by lack of sodium. These deficient diseases are more common in the developing world due to widespread poverty and food insecurity. There are other numerous diseases that are caused by lack of essential vitamins and minerals. Other disorders that have been associated with poor eating habits includes eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia, stress disorders and depression, risk of drug abuse, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, type 2 diabetes and poor development of reproductive systems (Allen & Myers, 2006). Prevention of the malnutrition in children There is no doubt that malnutrition is both a national and international problem. Due to the large number of children with nutritional imbalance condition, the resultant health complication in the future may be overwhelming to the national health systems. It is therefore important for the relevant authority to implement the most appropriate educational programs that will educate the public especially parents on feeding children with health diets. Strategies that encourage adequate breastfeeding of infants and the dangers of unhealthy junk foods are recommended. Educating the parent to change their lifestyles and take responsibility of their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s eating habit is also essential. Educating parents of obese children for example will assist them identify the root cause of the problem and design an intervention plan. It is also important for the parents to be aware of the nutritional need of their children which can be provided through civic education strategies (Hills, et al, 2007). The influence of the mass media in the modern world is not in doubt. Manufacturers of junk foods have bombarded the young people with advertisement which has had a significant influence on their eating habits. The same mass media can be used as a channel of educating the public on the importance of eating healthy foods. Media campaigns and advertisement that discourage unhealthy eating habits and educates people on dangers of malnutrition as well as nutritional requirement can possibly reverse the situation. However, these media promotions and advertisement should be carried out carefully to avoid magnifying the already developing social stigma against overweight members of the society. Promotion of physical education in school and encouraging children to involve themselves in physical exercises such as playing sport, walking a dog or riding a bicycle should be a top priority. There should be no excuse for physical education in schools while the parents should discourage passive activities at home such watching TV or playing computer games (French, et al, 2001). Conclusion Over indulgence in unhealthy junk foods rather that inadequate food supply is the most important form of malnutrition among American children today. These foods are deficient in essential dietary component and have high amounts of fats, sugars, salts, artificial additives and preservatives that have negative effects on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s health. There is a need for the government through the relevant departments to implement policies and strategies that will save the children from malnutrition. This includes educating the parents on appropriate food for the children and promoting physical exercises among children. Strategies to combat numerous commercial advertisements of junk foods which make them look more attractive compared to healthy home made food should be developed and implemented. These policies should go hand in hand with ensuring increased access to quality and affordable foodstuffs. Reference Allen, R. E. & Myers, A . L (2006). Ã¢â¬Å"Nutrition in toddlersÃ¢â¬ . American family physician 74 (9): 1527Ã¢â¬â32. Blossner, M. & Mercedes, O. (2005). Malnutrition, quantifying the health impact at national and local levels, retrieved on August 18th 2010 from; http://whqlibdoc. who. int/publications/2005/9241591870. pdf. Dalton, S. (2005). Our Overweight Children: What Parents, Schools, and Communities Can Do to Control the Fatness Epidemic, Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, Dietz, W. H (1998). Ã¢â¬Å"Health consequences of obesity in youth: childhood predictors of adult diseaseÃ¢â¬ . Pediatrics 101 (3 Pt 2): pp 518Ã¢â¬â25. French S. A, Story, M, Neumark-Sztainer, D, Fulkerson J. A, Hannan P. (2001). Ã¢â¬Å"Fast food restaurant use among adolescents: associations with nutrient intake, food choices and behavioral and psychosocial variablesÃ¢â¬ . Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 25 (12): 1823Ã¢â¬â33 Hills, A. P. , King, N. A. & Byrne, N. M. (2007). Children, obesity and exercise: prevention, treatment and management of childhood and adolescent obesity, New York, NY: Routledge Peter, G. K. (2005). Clinical obesity in adults and children: In Adults and Children. Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Hitchcocks Psycho Psycho first hit our screens in 1960 directed by Alfred Hitchcock. It faced major controversy, as it was different. Horror films before this were more unrealistic and gruesome. Psycho was a groundbreaking film of the horror genre. It was more realistic the events could happen in reality. Censorship was very strict at this time. Film standards agencies censored films showing sex before marriage, nakedness, violence and gore. Fortunately, Hitchcock overcame these restrictions in many ways. He used a series of shots to film the shower scene instead of continuous shot. He used chocolate sauce for blood and he had a knife stabbing a melon to imitate the sound of the butcher knifeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This hugely increased the despair and shock, the feeling of loss even when a character is brutally murdered. Straight away Hitchcock begins to build our sympathies for Marion Crane. He uses several cinematic techniques to create a mise-en-scene. Mise-en-scene is everything a view er can see within a certain frame and consists of many aspects. For instance, Hitchcock uses a high-angle, mid range establishing shot to put Marion in her context, and highlight her vulnerability. The music for psycho is critical to the film as a whole. Each time a character is killed, when the murderer emerges from their hiding place, the high-pitched music strings up the jumpy rhythm, before the rest of the instruments join in. The music sets the tone for almost all the scenes. The shower scene, in which Marion is fatally stabbed, would be nowhere near as effective without its music. Music is also the key to the film due to its ability to build up expectations within the audience and create large amounts of tension and suspense. Another example of sound is Hitchcocks use of voice over. For instance, as Marion drives away with the money she ha stolen, she imagines conversations between the people she has left behind and their reactions to her faults. Hitchcock also uses sound, which doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t complement the image that we see. Whilst the on screenShow MoreRelatedAlfred Hitchcocks Psycho992 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAlfred HitchcockÃ¢â¬â¢s film Ã¢â¬Å"PsychoÃ¢â¬ created a tremendous impact on 60Ã¢â¬â¢s American films. Hitchcock powerfully describes the murder scene of Marion, while taking a shower at Bates Motel. Viewers and critics of the film believe that it is unconventional and overly violent for young viewers eyes, but some analysts think that it is a form of deconstruction, a new structure of horror film that Hitchcock wants to share. 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