Monday, September 30, 2019
Patrick Henry, a devoted patriot and wise man fulfilled a position in the Virginia convention. After the Intolerable Acts imposed by King George on the colonies, Americans suffered an unfair rule, where Great Britain took control. In 1775 Patrick Henry introduced a resolution to the Virginia Convention to form the local militia to be prepared to fight the British. In order to gain approvals from his collies, Henry employs rhetorical appeals witch help him urge his purpose and take the lead with the use of an urgent tone witch induces his audience to support his statement towards war. Patrick Henry begins his speech by stating an ethical appeal with the statement Ã¢â¬Å"Mr. President No man thinks more highly than I do of the patriotism, as well as abilities of the very worthy gentlemenÃ¢â¬ ¦. But different men often see the same subject in different lights. Ã¢â¬ At this juncture, Patrick Henry defends his position as a patriot; he uses the word Ã¢â¬Å"lightÃ¢â¬ to introduce the idea that light represents truth and spiritual illumination. By doing this, he is aligning his view of the need to fight with GodÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose. Also one can conclude that Henry is confident of what he is presenting on this day, he takes the advantage of his abilities and knows that fighting war is the way that leads to liberty. Continuing his speech Henry makes use of another ethical appeal, he declares Ã¢â¬Å"It is only in this way that we can hope to arrive at truth, and fulfill the great responsibility which we hold to God and our countryÃ¢â¬ by the use of this words Henry creates an appeal of authority, to the authority of God and appeal that proves his position that shows him as a Christian. By this he attempts to transmit that what he says is that fighting for freedom is GodÃ¢â¬â¢s truth and that it is a responsibility to both God and country. After establishing and ethical appeal, he uses mythical allusion, which he literary compares how the British are saying things to the colonists which are promising false hopes, Ã¢â¬Å"listen to the song of that siren till she transforms us into beastsÃ¢â¬ (Henry), and by this use of words at the same time Henry creates an emotional appeal because he transmit fear, meaning that the colonies are going to be under British rule forever. Henry Changes subject and creates an emotional precis, he imparts by saying Ã¢â¬Å"Are we disposed to be of the number of those who having eyes see not, and having ears hear not, the things which so nearly concern their temporal salvation. Ã¢â¬ (Henry). By using the words Ã¢â¬Å"nearlyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"concernÃ¢â¬ Henry strives to create in the colonists an emotion of fear, because he knows that colonistsÃ¢â¬â¢ goal is reaching heaven. In addition Henry uses a Biblical allusion to support this statement; this comes from Ezekiel 12:2 which says that Ã¢â¬Å"those who canÃ¢â¬â¢t see and canÃ¢â¬â¢t hear the truth about God will lose their spiritual salvationÃ¢â¬ (Bible & God). Furthermore Henry constructs a Biblical allusion Ã¢â¬Å"I have but one lamp by which by feet are guided, and that is the lamp of experienceÃ¢â¬ (Henry). Symbolically speaking he uses the choice of words like Ã¢â¬Å"experience a lampÃ¢â¬ , he says is that that Ã¢â¬Å"experienceÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"lightÃ¢â¬ will show the way for the future, just like the scripture which says that GodÃ¢â¬â¢s word is a Ã¢â¬Å"lamp unto thy feet and a light unto thy pathÃ¢â¬ (Bible). But also this is an ethical appeal because it shows him as a spiritual person and a true believer. Henry continues using many ethical appeals throughout his speech. Articulating his word choice, Henry utters Ã¢â¬Å"Is it that insidious smile with which out petition has been lately received? Ã¢â¬ (Henry). He says that the colonistsÃ¢â¬â¢ petition have been met with Ã¢â¬Å"an insidious smile. Ã¢â¬ The use of the words Ã¢â¬Å"insidious smileÃ¢â¬ creates an ethical appeal because it implies that the British are fooling the colonists into believing that they will act on these petitions in a positive manner, but it is really only a trap to keep them under their rule. Henry presents rhetorical questions to provoked his audience and create fearful thought for them to start acting. He is forcing the colonists to think about their arguments and through the declarative sentences, he refuses their arguments immediately. Henry gives evidence in his inductive argument as he cites the actions which the colonists have taken to get the British to respond to some of their demands which also creates a logical appeal. Henry presents his evidence in a series of parallel independent clauses. With the parallel structures he indicates that all actions are equally important. Henry prolongs verbalizing his speech with the opposing argument that the colonists are weak with the use of an ethical appeal. He pronounces, Ã¢â¬Å"But when shall we be stronger? Ã¢â¬ (Henry). Yet again he creates an emotional appeal through his description of the outcome of waiting until they are stronger such as asking if they will be stronger. Carrying on Henry declares Ã¢â¬Å"when a British guard shall be stationed in every house. Ã¢â¬ He creates a terrifying image in figuratively comparing their waiting and hoping for someone. He keep on continuing with rhetorical questions like Ã¢â¬Å"Lying supinely on their backs and hugging the delusive phantom of hope until their enemies have bound their hand and foot? Ã¢â¬ (Henry). At this time again, he metaphorically refers to hope as not being real phantom but an image of slavery is extended here as he refers to the colonists being Ã¢â¬Å"bound hand and footÃ¢â¬ which is a metaphor for their lack of freedom under British rule. Henry once again makes his point of ethical appeal and also emotional comparing British rule with death by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"but as for me, give me liberty, or give me death! Ã¢â¬ (Henry). Henry uses a parallel structure in an exclamatory sentence to show that liberty is equally as valuable and desirable as death which is destructive and undesirable but also still keeps his image as a loyal patriot. By paralleling them in a balanced sentence, he says that the outcome will be one or the other and there can be no compromise. He completes his topic here of comparing slavery, lack of freedom because of British rule with death. Patrick Henry operates down his speech of influence by successfully and compellingly articulated his support for war with great Britain through well organized arguments and affective use of simile, personification, logical reasoning, rhetorical questioning and more important emotional appeal. He concludes that the colonies need freedom, and request back their independence from Britain.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
The cars today have such far-advanced automotive technology that the motorized transport vehicle seems to drive itself. The problem is that because driving cars today require less concentration than the cars of yesteryear, inventors seem to have come up with new and varied ways to keep the driver busy behind the wheel. This would not be such a bad thing if it did not pose such a threat to the life and limb of the driver and the pedestrians and other cars in his path. I am not kidding, all you have to do is look at every single person behind the wheel these days to know that they should not be driving and performing whatever activity it is that is preoccupying their minds, hands, and mouths, all at the same time. So, what kinds of driving activities pose as bad driving habits or hazards on the road? How do the activities alter the driver's state of mind and concentration? The usual culprit that creates a dangerous driving habit is technology. It is not uncommon to see people driving with one hand on the wheel and the other holding a cellphone up to his ear while navigating dangerous turns and traffic lights. Women rushing out the door with curlers in their hair also try to put on make up while driving to work. Needless to say, the rearview mirror is not for applying mascara to the face. Speaking of rushing out the door, today's fast paced life style also insures that most people do not have time to have a decent breakfast before flying out the door. A quick trip through a drive through gives you the most common dangerous driving habit ever to be performed by man. Instead of keeping an eye on the road, the driver ends up with his eye on the sandwich and trying to balance the drink that he so does not need spilling unto his lap. Aside from these everyday-driving hazards that drivers do not seem to realize they are performing, there are also the bad driving habits that are caused by speeding. This is the tendency of a hurried driver to run down a pedestrian is greater and the possibility of loosing control of the wheel is a seriously dangerous reality. Not to forget, some drivers forget to use their turn signals and this often times causes accidents between other cars or pedestrians. By simply using these simple warning devices, accidents can be avoided. I would also like to mention that people who do not use their signal lights usually end up engaged in a violent game of road rage. Other drivers tend to get irritated and worked up into frenzy when the driver in front of them fails to use their signal lights and almost runs the driver behind him into an accident. Another example of a bad driving habit is an over confident and cocky driver behind the wheel. This is usually a bad habit attributed to experienced drivers because their driving route they traverse has become such a routine that they think they can navigate it with their eyes closed. So when an activity that poses a threat to the life and limb of the driver and those around him jogs the driver to reality, they are usually unprepared to respond to the situation. Basically, dangerous driving habits are not something permanent. If you remain conscious of your driving habits and remember to always stick to the rules of the road, there is no reason for one to become one of the many drivers on the road these days with terrible driving habits. Safe driving is practically just common sense and is not hard to follow. Just remember, bad driving habits means that you are just lucky that the grim reaper hasn't decided to take you yet. It never hurts to err on the side of caution and drive safely for a happy long life. Outline: I.Introduction to dangerous driving habits II.Technological advancements that cause bad driving habits III.Bad driving habits brought about by a fast paced lifestyle IV. Bad driving habits caused by speeding V. Bad driving habits caused by complacency of the driver in his driving skills VI.Suggestions to alter bad driving habits VII. Conclusion Work Cited Ã¢â¬Å"Dangerous Driving HabitsÃ¢â¬ . Ezine Articles. 2006.May 8, 2007.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
The novel consists of four main characters; Dr. Sloper, a rich doctor and brilliant professional who was married to an heiress who died of complications of child birth. He has Catherine has his only living child, another major character who has fallen in love with Morris Townsend, yet another major character. Morris has wasted his inheritance for traveling and is putting up with her sister Mrs. Montgomery. Mrs. Montgomery is poor, a window with five children. Sloper pays her a visit to discuss her brother Morris, and she is persuaded by him to admit that Morris takes money from her, returns very little and makes her suffer.Morris is handsome and tall and attracted to Catherine, but Lavinia Penniman, another major character, lazy and a soap operas fun, tries to manipulate and lead their relationship into romantic melodrama. Sloper refuses to allow the relationship between her daughter and Morris to survive. He even withdraws her to New York for twelve months. Catherine does not accept to end her love with Morris and her father announces that she would withdraw financial support if they marry. He rejects Morris on the basics of him being after CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s money and poor background.After return from the exile, Catherine convinces Morris that her father would not accept, and Morris withdraws. Catherine is devastated by this and as a result she is unwilling to be married afterwards. The damage is too much that she finally rejects the proposal by Morris, who resurfaces after the death of her father Sloper, who has left reduced amount of money for fear that Morris would return. Issues of social class, relationships and finances are brought out in this book. Sloper means to stop the relationship between her daughter and Morris, but only that love was stronger that it does not end.He feels that Morris is after her daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s finances and considers her poor background. Athough she canÃ¢â¬â¢t avoid sympathy for her own daughter, one can deduce that he feel s it unfair for her to have been married by a poor man. This can be perceived as to be what is happening between the rich and the poor. One can almost see the judgment in the sentences mentioned that social class and the financial stature marry. Catherine is torn between pleasing her father, and her fiancÃ ©. She finally chooses her fiancÃ ©.One can feel that because of money, Sloper causes Mrs. Montgomery, who is poor; to admit what is false thus the Ã¢â¬Ërich misleading the poorÃ¢â¬â¢ concept comes into play. One can add that the rich and the poor may interact on the basis of money acting as an exchange to various favors. Although the rich are largely not willing to let such interactions as marriage to occur between their high social class and the poor low social class, they can make efforts to relate with the poor using their social wellbeing and money-such an unfair play.Fears of certain interaction by the rich, who worry for their daughters like in this case, sometimes ma ke them to suffer. They find themselves torn between the world of the rich and that of poor people. Social disparities are largely influenced by the way of life of people, and this may be determined by how rich or poor a person could be. Sometimes, the poor who must live find themselves having no options than to choose what is available for their survival or benefits.
Friday, September 27, 2019
See the attachment - Essay Example Or it could be said that it comprises of certain rules which we have to dutifully obey in order to live with a peaceful heart and soul. It is a complete system provided from some super human source totally unlike mankind. It is also the belief of sharing positive humanitarian experiences with every individual we interact with. So the basic ideology behind the concept of adopting any particular belief or religion for any normal person is to adjust ourselves harmoniously and also to achieve our own well-being by following any particular system of rules. Religion not only is the divine word from God, but it also is a definite set of persuasive ways for living life the way it is best suited for us humans. Science could best be understood in the words of Benjamin Farrington Ã¢â¬Å"Science is the system of behavior by which man has acquired mastery of his environment. It has its origins in techniquesÃ¢â¬ ¦.in various activities by which man keep body and soul together. Its source is exper ience, its aim practical, its only test, that it works.Ã¢â¬ (Grant). This essay is aimed at proving that science and religion are not conflicting with each other rather scientific findings and discoveries are supported in religion as well. History has seen many scholars debate and argue over the point that whether religion is in accordance with science or not. This issue heated up with the advent of prominent discoveries in the field of science and the relationship between the divine and the factuality was always considered at war. Andrew Dickson WhiteÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A History of the warfare of Science with theology in ChrishtendonÃ¢â¬ is an unavoidable example in this respect where he tried to lay the understanding of religion and scienceÃ¢â¬â¢s interaction. But his approach has been of a contradictory one. Immanuel Kant provided a completely different theory in this regard and believed that science and religion may no conflict but cater to opposite aspects of mankind. Sci ence is involved with natural processes while religion provides inner solace. Then only recently the relation between science and religion has gained some positive and substantial relation. The most important example in this regard would be of Stephen Jay Gould, who in his book Ã¢â¬Å"Rock of Ages: Science and Religion in the Fullness of LifeÃ¢â¬ (1999) wrote Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ ¦. do not understand why the two enterprises should experience any conflict. Science tries to document the factual character of the natural world and to develop theories that coordinate and explain these facts. Religion on the other hand, operates in the equally important, but utterly different realm of human purposes, meanings and values.Ã¢â¬ (Doumit) As this research based essay is an attempt to assess a particular religion with its relevance to the modern contemporary era of scientific researches and technology. It becomes integral to select some particular divine system for advancing in this research. Th ere is one little complication though which arose in my mind, that the selected religious system should be involving every particular aspect of normal daily human and social life. Only then a complete analysis can be made and a conclusion could be reached. So, after studying many different religious beliefs being adopted worldwide it is the Islamic system for humanity which I could find the closest to meet my research demands. The world Islam originated from Arabic word Ã¢â¬Å"
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Video Case - Assignment Example Hot Topic should maintain its commitment to its theme of music and keep opening more branches nationally as well as across the border to keep being successful. Ans. The idea of no walls and no doors promotes mutual understanding among the organizational personnel and helps them identify, target, and resolve issues at the grass-root level before they become too big to be fought away. Such an environment boosts transparency at all levels and in all matters of the organization. In addition to that, communication barriers among organizational personnel both horizontal and vertical are broken in an open environment. I would love to work in such an atmosphere because it will help me understand the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s history, culture, norms and values, trends and traditions, goals, mission and vision, and approach to work in very little time and enable me to start delivering and contributing to my companyÃ¢â¬â¢s development much earlier and more efficiently than I would in a closed and isolated
Influence of New Technologies on Visual Arts - Essay Example The essay "Influence of New Technologies on Visual Arts" discovers photography and its influence on visual art of 19th century. Realism and impressionism in photography and cinematograph would never have occurred without the invention of photography. Photo-realism also would not exist without photography. The new technology of photography in the 19th century led to a Realism movement. The photographers wanted to capture a true image. They did not care about making art, but in making actual replications of real things. This helped move the technology of photography along. In an effort to capture a more real looking photo, newer cameras and film were developed. This pushed the technology forward into cinematography. The better the camera and film became made making films possible. Photographic impressionists used different techniques to make their photos seem unrealistic. Soft focus was one technique used to make a picture look different. Over exposing film was another technique. Regul ar photography inspired painters. Photography had started to come of age in the middle of the 19th century with accurate depictions of people and places. Artists such as Manet, Monet, Degas, CÃ ©zanne and Pissarro felt the pressure to develop a new style that would not compete with the "accuracy" of photography. These works would never have developed without photography. Impressionism, photography, cinematography, or painting, would not have been the same. Photorealism was also affected by the emerging technology of photography.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Rationality - Term Paper Example ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why it is called foundationalist. It interprets knowledge according to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal foundations, how one is taught about things. These basic beliefs are treated as self-justifying meaning to say that it does not need any reason or explanation whatsoever in understanding the said belief. This is used to understand other things as these reasons are the basic principles of how the human mind works. The foundationalist approach to rationality then is a more rigid structure of what is and what is not without needing to explain things further or whether to think that something can be interpreted in more ways than one. This is how it is different from the constructivist approach wherein this approach interprets rationality as something that can be viewed differently from one person to another, whether they are from the same or different cultures, or whether they had the same or different experiences. Its basis is upon oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own personal interpretations and whil e interpreting and explaining things, it moves on to create new explanations that further open new roads and opportunities of thought processes. The constructivist approach to rationality is a more flexible way of understanding things, as the term implies it constructs explanations rather than ground them as what foundationalist approach does. With this, I can say that rationality can be perceived both ways (although this still is a more constructivist approach). We can use grounded beliefs in interpreting different things that needs explanations, although there are some specific things that need to be interpreted depending on how one is raised upon it. Evidently, this shows that good reasons are evidently true depending on how we try to explain things. Classmate ToddÃ¢â¬â¢s interpretation of the foundationalist and constructivist approach to rationality allows us to see that both approaches can go hand-in-hand in understanding rationality. This is
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Interest Rate Risk Assignment - Essay Example Indeed, the credit was sold to the customer at a lower price (lower interest rate) than it could have been if it had been sold at a later time. Certainly, this is one of the simple examples, but we must consider that the value of the bank itself can be directly affected by the interest rate risk, through changes in its overall assets and liabilities values2 and given the time value of money. The repricing gap model is one of the simplest used by banks to determine the amount of exposure for their assets and is based on "the net differences between interest rate sensitive assets and liabilities maturing at different times"3). Within established time bands (one day, 1 day 3 months, 3-6 months etc. up to assets and liabilities with maturities of over 5 years), total liability values are subtracted from total asset values to evaluate a gap between the two. Each gap value thus obtained can be multiplied by a the assumed change in interest rates in order to obtain the potential numerical expression of the impact the change in interest rates will have on the value of that respective bandwidth (evaluated as the gap between assets and liabilities). ... Despite the fact that the repricing gap model is simple enough to be used by almost everybody, one of its biggest disadvantages refers exactly to this simplicity of the model. Indeed, there is practically no other variable being taking into consideration other than the difference in value between assets and liabilities within a time band. The market conditions generally impose multiple variable, such as different maturing and repricing periods4 or payments that need to be taken into consideration, so we may point out towards the fact that this model is only an approximation of the level of exposure of a bank to the interest rate risk. The duration gap analysis is somewhat more complex and provides more answers for a proper interest rate exposure analysis. It "focuses on managing NII or the market value of equity, recognizing the timing of cash flows"5, which is something that the repricing gap model ignored. According to the same source (Koch and MacDonald), an effective duration gap analysis will include three main steps. First of all, the bank management and analysis department will need to develop a forecast for the future levels of interest rate. Subsequently, the management determined the market value for all the assets and liabilities held by the bank. Third of all, an estimation of the weighted duration of assets and of the weighted duration of liabilities is made. In order to be able to hedge the market value of the bank's equity, the management will evaluate the difference between the weighted duration of assets and the weighted duration of liabilities and will set the condition that this equals to 0. Upon calculation, the bank management's conclusion will hold either an adjustment of either asset or liability weighted duration. 3.a)
Monday, September 23, 2019
Health Service Administration - Essay Example The success of HSA can be determined from the fact that since January 2004, more than 3 million Americans have enrolled in HSA, which are helping make health insurance more affordable for not only for middle class individuals but also for those who are unable to afford quality health supervision. (Whitehouse) According to Longman, the role of economics in health care in Bush's era has allowed Americans to avoid frequent skipping from one health-care plan to the next, with all the discontinuities in care and record keeping and disincentives to preventative care that this entails. (Longman, Jan-Feb 2005) Economic Organization of managed care strategies offer ways to reduce some of the excesses, although not necessarily in consonance with measured health needs. Combining corporate organization with financial management, managed care has characterized a business model of medicine. What one can expect more from economical contribution that has reduced health needs in many cases and suffered through income loss that is usually shared between the patient and society Psychology has also contributed towards health administration while taking in consideration those matters that are influential and carry risk for development of disease. Research has shown that psychology has helped alleviate the effects of disorders in our community in many ways. For example, after conducting a detailed research on the patient's behaviour, it has developed various ways to stop smoking. One of the models of smoking developed with the help of psychology is the nicotine regulation model, which assess different patients accordingly. Psychology has helped developed models, which differs from the traditional theories by giving heavy emphasis to process that means, it focuses on the continual interactions among the variables active during behavioral episodes to prevent and control illness to the updating and transitions that occur over time. Psychological contribution also persists in models, which deals with changes in the representation of health threats from that of an acute to that of a chronic threat, and the need to revise procedures, outcome expectations, and outcome appraisals as a function of changes in the illness representation. (Baum et al, 2001, p. 56) Health belief variables, such as vulnerability and severity beliefs and the perceived costs and benefits of action, are beliefs at a moment. Neither these concepts nor those of intention, perceived norms, or attitudes suggest ways of engaging and changing individual health cognition. Psychological factors have contributed as taking the responsibility for identifying the differences between the health and psychological models, how to benefit a patient by combining these models as therapies and how to self-regulate health problems. The best example of psychological contribution to health is the specification of medical and public health authorities towards stopping smoking, using safety belts, reducing dietary fat, etc. Sociology Contribution in Health Care Contemporary sociology contribution can be acknowledged
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Gender Issues In Education, Sports And Employment Essay Gender is the cultural construct attached to the fact of biological sex. The construct of gender has come to carry significant meaning with regard to the valuing of people or behaviors according to gender qualifications. There is much evidence that suggest that gendered inequality is the product of female oppression in a world dominated by global male hegemony within and across institutions including family, school, politics, and the labor market. Gender inequality is generally manifested in unequal rights for women of access to basic social services such as education; unequal rights for equal work in the employment sector, and unequal opportunities in sports. This paper is a brief discussion of the specific problems commonly identified within the issue of gender inequality in the mentioned areas, along with a number of potential solutions to ease, if not to totally eradicate the said inequities. Gender Issues in Education The literature on womenÃ¢â¬â¢s and girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ education frequently focuses o gendered inequalities in educational opportunities, educational attainment, and status of women in social, political and economic arenas both within and across nations. This problem may seem relatively straightforward, but gendered educational inequity is a complex phenomenon. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s education is strongly contextualized by the social and cultural environment of the local schools and national educational systems. Schools are the locus for much of the progress that is being made towards a culture of equality, although there is still much more to be done in order for gender equality to be a consistent characteristic of educational systems around the world (Valian, 2004). A solution seen for this is to institutionalize gender equity standards as components of school policy and structure, which will make it more likely that gendered inequalities will be both observed and identified as inequity. In this way, a heightened sense of awareness in gendered educational inequality could work on behalf of women. Gender Issues in Sports Gender differentiation has also been powerfully constructed through sports and the culture of sports. Moreover, Scraton and Flintoff (2002) asserted that organized sport has been a powerful cultural arena for reinforcing the ideology and actuality of male superiority and dominance; its traditions, symbols, and values have tended to preserve patriarchy and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s subordinate position in society. Sport was an activity that serves two purposes for men: it meets their recreational needs, and it is a perfect antidote for their anxieties about effeminacy. Sport thus became a popular means for men to reaffirm their masculinity, and hence, a powerful tool for maintaining patriarchal gender relations. These social conditions made being both a woman and an athlete an anomaly in life. Female athletes did not suit societyÃ¢â¬â¢s ideal of femininity, and those who persisted in sport suffers various aversive sanctions, especially derogation and public ridicule. A solution seen about this issue is for sports organizations to be prepared to analyze critically the ways they operate, the ways they make policy, and the ways in which national and international policy processes influence or are influenced by these sites of power. Gender Issues in Employment Gender inequality in employment begins with the gender labeling of workers. Gender categorization in workplace primes workers and employers alike to infuse stereotypic assumptions about gender into the institutional scripts by which a job is enacted and represented to others (Blakemore and Griggs, 2007). Employers often begin the process by implicitly or explicitly seeking workers of a particular gender on the basis of assumptions about labor costs that are themselves suffused by the effect of gender status beliefs. On the occasions that they hire a woman for a certain position, the pay is lower compared to a man employed in the exact same position. As a further result, women are inclined to be concentrated in casual occupations, where salary and work environment are poorer than in formal and public positions. The understanding of how to work towards gender equality is that people need to change inequitable social systems and institutions. Generally, institutional change is the requirement for addressing the root causes of gender inequality. It means changing organizations which, in their programs, policies, structures, and ways of working, discriminate against women. Organizations should work on legal and policy change, or change material conditions. In order to bring about gender equality in employment, change must occur at the personal level and at the social level. It must occur in formal and informal relations. References Scraton, S. Flintoff, A. (2002). Gender and Sport: A Reader. New York: Routledge. Blakemore, K. Griggs, E. (2007). Social Policy: An Introduction. New York: Open University Press. Valian, V. (2004). Beyond Gender Schemas: Improving the Advancement of Women in Academia. NWSA Journal, 16 (1): 207-220.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Electrochemical battery HISTORY An early form of electrochemical battery called the Baghdad Battery may have been used in antiquity. However, the modern development of batteries started with the Voltaic pile, invented by the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta in 1800. In 1780 the Italian anatomist and physiologist Luigi Galvani noticed that dissected frogs legs would twitch when struck by a spark from a Leyden jar, an external source of electricity. In 1786 he noticed that twitching would occur during lightning storms. After many years Galvani learned how to produce twitching without using any external source of electricity. He started doing his experiments on frogs with metals but he replaced them with electrolyte and electrodes and named the system as voltaic cell. In 1800, Volta invented the battery by placing many voltaic cells in series, literally piling them one above the other. This Voltaic pile gave a greatly enhanced net emf for the combination. After voltaic cell, in 1836 Daniell cell came into existence. It provided more stable current and was also accepted by the industries. These wet cells were not portable as there liquid electrolyte used to spill. Therefore by the end of nineteenth century dry batteries came into existence in which the liquid electrolyte was replaced with dry paste making the dry batteries portable. Working of Batteries Electrochemical cell In this example the two half-cells are linked by a salt bridge separator that permits the transfer of ions, but not water molecules. A battery is a device that converts chemical energy directly to electrical energy. It consists of a number of voltaic cells; each voltaic cell consists of two half cells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte containing anions and cations. One half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to which anions (negatively-charged ions) migrate, i.e. the anode or negative electrode; the other half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to which cations (positively-charged ions) migrate, i.e. the cathode or positive electrode. In the redox reaction that powers the battery, reduction (addition of electrons) occurs to cations at the cathode, while oxidation (removal of electrons) occurs to anions at the anode. The electrodes do not touch each other but are electrically connected by the electrolyte, which can be either solid or liquid. Many cells use two half-cells with different electrolytes. In that case each half-cell is enclosed in a container, and a separator that is porou s to ions but not the bulk of the electrolytes prevents mixing. Each half cell has an electromotive force (or emf), determined by its ability to drive electric current from the interior to the exterior of the cell. The net emf of the cell is the difference between the emfs of its half-cells, as first recognized by Volta. Therefore, if the electrodes have emfs and, then the net emf is; in other words, the net emf is the difference between the reduction potentials of the half-reactions. The electrical driving force or across the terminals of a cell is known as the terminal voltage (difference) and is measured in volts. The terminal voltage of a cell that is neither charging nor discharging is called the open-circuit voltage and equals the emf of the cell. Because of internal resistance, the terminal voltage of a cell that is discharging is smaller in magnitude than the open-circuit voltage and the terminal voltage of a cell that is charging exceeds the open-circuit voltage. An ideal cell has negligible internal resistance, so it would maintain a constant terminal voltage of until exhausted, then dropping to zero. If such a cell maintained 1.5 volts and stored a charge of one Coulomb then on complete discharge it would perform 1.5 Joule of work. In actual cells, the internal resistance increases under discharge, and the open circuit voltage also decreases under discharge. If the voltage and resistance are plotted against time, the resulting graphs typically are a cur ve; the shape of the curve varies according to the chemistry and internal arrangement employed. As stated above, the voltage developed across a cells terminals depends on the energy release of the chemical reactions of its electrodes and electrolyte. Alkaline and carbon-zinc cells have different chemistries but approximately the same emf of 1.5 volts; likewise NiCd and NiMH cells have different chemistries, but approximately the same emf of 1.2 volts. On the other hand the high electrochemical potential changes in the reactions of lithium compounds give lithium cells emfs of 3 volts or more. Categories and types of batteries Main article: List of battery types Batteries are classified into two broad categories, each type with advantages and disadvantages. Primary batteries irreversibly (within limits of practicality) transform chemical energy to electrical energy. When the initial supply of reactants is exhausted, energy cannot be readily restored to the battery by electrical means. Secondary batteries can be recharged; that is, they can have their chemical reactions reversed by supplying electrical energy to the cell, restoring their original composition. Historically, some types of primary batteries used, for example, for telegraph circuits, were restored to operation by replacing the components of the battery consumed by the chemical reaction. Secondary batteries are not indefinitely rechargeable due to dissipation of the active materials, loss of electrolyte and internal corrosion. Primary batteries Primary batteries can produce current immediately on assembly. Disposable batteries are intended to be used once and discarded. These are most commonly used in portable devices that have low current drain, are only used intermittently, or are used well away from an alternative power source, such as in alarm and communication circuits where other electric power is only intermittently available. Disposable primary cells cannot be reliably recharged, since the chemical reactions are not easily reversible and active materials may not return to their original forms. Battery manufacturers recommend against attempting to recharge primary cells. Common types of disposable batteries include zinc-carbon batteries and alkaline batteries. Generally, these have higher energy densities than rechargeable batteries, but disposable batteries do not fare well under high-drain applications with loads under 75 ohms (75 Ã ©). Secondary batteries Main article: Rechargeable battery Secondary batteries must be charged before use; they are usually assembled with active materials in the discharged state. Rechargeable batteries or secondary cells can be recharged by applying electrical current, which reverses the chemical reactions that occur during its use. Devices to supply the appropriate current are called chargers or rechargers. The oldest form of rechargeable battery is the lead-acid battery. This battery is notable in that it contains a liquid in an unsealed container, requiring that the battery be kept upright and the area be well ventilated to ensure safe dispersal of the hydrogen gas produced by these batteries during overcharging. The lead-acid battery is also very heavy for the amount of electrical energy it can supply. Despite this, its low manufacturing cost and its high surge current levels make its use common where a large capacity (over approximately 10Ah) is required or where the weight and ease of handling are not concerns. A common form of the lead-acid battery is the modern car battery, which can generally deliver a peak current of 450 amperes. An improved type of liquid electrolyte battery is the sealed valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery, popular in the automotive industry as a replacement for the lead-acid wet cell. The VRLA battery uses an immobilized sulfuric acid electrolyte, reducing the chance of leakage and extending shelf life. VRLA batteries have the electrolyte immobilized, usually by one of two means: Gel batteries (or gel cell) contain a semi-solid electrolyte to prevent spillage. Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) batteries absorb the electrolyte in a special fiberglass matting Other portable rechargeable batteries include several dry cell types, which are sealed units and are therefore useful in appliances such as mobile phones and laptop computers. Cells of this type (in order of increasing power density and cost) include nickel-cadmium (NiCd), nickel metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells. By far, Li-ion has the highest share of the dry cell rechargeable market. Meanwhile, NiMH has replaced NiCd in most applications due to its higher capacity, but NiCd remains in use in power tools, two-way radios, and medical equipment. Battery cell types There are many general types of electrochemical cells, according to chemical processes applied and design chosen. The variation includes galvanic cells, electrolytic cells, fuel cells, flow cells and voltaic piles. Wet cell A wet cell battery has a liquid electrolyte. Other names are flooded cell since the liquid covers all internal parts, or vented cell since gases produced during operation can escape to the air. Wet cells were a precursor to dry cells and are commonly used as a learning tool for electrochemistry. It is often built with common laboratory supplies, like beakers, for demonstrations of how electrochemical cells work. A particular type of wet cell known as a concentration cell is important in understanding corrosion. Wet cells may be primary cells (non-rechargeable) or secondary cells (rechargeable). Originally all practical primary batteries such as the Daniel cell were built as open-topped glass jar wet cells. Other primary wet cells are the Leclanche cell, Grove cell, Bunsen cell, Chromic acid cell, Clark cell and Weston cell. The Leclanche cell chemistry was adapted to the first dry cells. Wet cells are still used in automobile batteries and in industry for standby power for switchgear, telecommunication or large uninterruptible power supplys, but in many places batteries with gel cells have been used instead. These applications commonly use lead-acid or nickel-cadmium cells. Dry cell A dry cell has the electrolyte immobilized as a paste, with only enough moisture in the paste to allow current to flow. Compared to a wet cell, the battery can be operated in any random position, and will not spill its electrolyte if inverted. While a dry cells electrolyte is not truly completely free of moisture and must contain some moisture to function, when it was first developed it had the advantage of containing no sloshing liquid that might leak or drip out when inverted or handled roughly, making it highly suitable for small portable electric devices. By comparison, the first wet cells were typically fragile glass containers with lead rods hanging from the open top, and needed careful handling to avoid spillage. An inverted wet cell would leak, while a dry cell would not. Lead-acid batteries would not achieve the safety and portability of the dry cell, until the development of the gel battery. A common dry cell battery is the zinc-carbon battery, using a cell sometimes called the dry LeclanchÃ © cell, with a nominal voltage of 1.5 volts, the same nominal voltage as the alkaline battery (since both use the same zinc-manganese dioxide combination. The makeup of a standard dry cell is a zinc anode (negative pole), usually in the form of a cylindrical pot, with a carbon cathode (positive pole) in the form of a central rod. The electrolyte is ammonium chloride in the form of a paste next to the zinc anode. The remaining space between the electrolyte and carbon cathode is taken up by a second paste consisting of ammonium chloride and manganese dioxide, the latter acting as a depolarizer. In some more modern types of so called high power batteries, the ammonium chloride has been replaced by zinc chloride. Battery cell performance A batterys characteristics may vary over load cycle, charge cycle and over life time due to many factors including internal chemistry, current drain and temperature. Extending battery life Battery life can be extended by storing the batteries at a low temperature, as in a refrigerator or freezer, because the chemical reactions in the batteries are slower. Such storage can extend the life of alkaline batteries by ~5%; while the charge of rechargeable batteries can be extended from a few days up to several months. In order to reach their maximum voltage, batteries must be returned to room temperature; discharging an alkaline battery at 250 mAh at 0Ã °C is only half as efficient as it is at 20Ã °C. As a result, alkaline battery manufacturers like Duracell do not recommend refrigerating or freezing batteries. Hazards 1.) Explosion A battery explosion is caused by the misuse or malfunction of a battery, such as attempting to recharge a primary (non-rechargeable) battery, or short circuiting a battery. With car batteries, explosions are most likely to occur when a short circuit generates very large currents. In addition, car batteries liberate hydrogen when they are overcharged (because of electrolysis of the water in the electrolyte). Normally the amount of overcharging is very small, as is the amount of explosive gas developed, and the gas dissipates quickly. However, when jumping a car battery, the high current can cause the rapid release of large volumes of hydrogen, which can be ignited by a nearby spark. When a battery is recharged at an excessive rate, an explosive gas mixture of hydrogen and oxygen may be produced faster than it can escape from within the walls of the battery, leading to pressure build-up and the possibility of the battery case bursting. In extreme cases, the battery acid may spray violently from the casing of the battery and cause injury. OverchargingÃ¢â¬âthat is, attempting to charge a battery beyond its electrical capacityÃ¢â¬âcan also lead to a battery explosion, leakage, or irreversible damage to the battery. It may also cause damage to the charger or device in which the overcharged battery is later used. Additionally, disposing of a battery in fire may cause an explosion as steam builds up within the sealed case of the battery. 2.) Leakage One style of disposable battery uses zinc can as both a reactant and as the container to hold the other reagents. If this kind of battery is run all the way down, or if it is recharged after running down too far, the reagents can emerge through the cardboard and plastic that forms the remainder of the container. The active chemicals can then corrode or otherwise destroy the equipment that they were inserted into. Many battery chemicals are corrosive or poisonous or both. If leakage occurs, either spontaneously or through accident, the chemicals released may be dangerous. 3.) Environmental concerns The widespread use of batteries has created many environmental concerns, such as toxic metal pollution. Battery manufacture consumes resources and often involves hazardous chemicals. Used batteries also contribute to electronic waste. Some areas now have battery recycling services available to recover some of the materials from used batteries. Batteries may be harmful or fatal if swallowed. Recycling or proper disposal prevents dangerous elements (such as lead, mercury, and cadmium) found in some types of batteries from entering the environment. In the United States, Americans purchase nearly three billion batteries annually, and about 179,000 tons of those end up in landfills across the country. In the United States, the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act of 1996 banned the sale of mercury-containing batteries (except small button cell batteries), enacted uniform labeling requirements for rechargeable batteries, and required that rechargeable batteries be easily removable. California and New York City prohibit the disposal of rechargeable batteries in solid waste, and along with Maine require recycling of cell phones. The rechargeable battery industry has nationwide recycling programs in the United States and Canada, with drop-off points at local retailers. Battery chemistry Older batteries were mostly based on rechargeable lead-acid or non-rechargeable alkaline chemistries, with nominal voltages in increments of 2.10 2.13 and 1.5Volts respectively, each representing one individual electrochemical cell. New special battery chemistries have strained older naming conventions. Rechargeable NiCd (Nickel Cadmium) and NiMH (Nickel Metal Hydride) typically output 1.25V per cell. Some devices may not operate properly with these cells, given the 16% reduction in voltage, but most modern ones handle them well. Conversely, lithium-ion rechargeable batteries output 3.7V per cell, 23% higher than a pair of alkaline cells (3V), which they are often designed to replace. Non-rechargeable lithium-chemistry batteries, which provide exceptionally high energy density, produce about 1.5V per cell and are thus similar to alkaline batteries. Many new battery sizes refer to both the batteries size and chemistry, while older names do not. For a more complete list see battery types. This summary is only for types relating to battery sizes. Homemade cells Almost any liquid or moist object that has enough ions to be electrically conductive can serve as the electrolyte for a cell. As a novelty or science demonstration, it is possible to insert two electrodes made of different metals into a lemon, potato, etc. and generate small amounts of electricity. Two-potato clocks are also widely available in hobby and toy stores; they consist of a pair of cells, each consisting of a potato (lemon, et cetera) with two electrodes inserted into it, wired in series to form a battery with enough voltage to power a digital clock. Homemade cells of this kind are of no real practical use, because they produce far less currentÃ¢â¬âand cost far more per unit of energy generatedÃ¢â¬âthan commercial cells, due to the need for frequent replacement of the fruit or vegetable. In addition, one can make a voltaic pile from two coins and a piece of paper towel dipped in salt water. Such a pile would make very little voltage itself, but when many of them are s tacked together in series, they can replace normal batteries for a short amount of time. Sony has developed a biologically friendly battery that generates electricity from sugar in a way that is similar to the processes observed in living organisms. The battery generates electricity through the use of enzymes that break down carbohydrates, which are essentially sugar. Lead acid cells can easily be manufactured at home, but a tedious charge/discharge cycle is needed to form the plates. This is a process whereby lead sulfate forms on the plates, and during charge is converted to lead dioxide (positive plate) and pure lead (negative plate). Repeating this process results in a microscopically rough surface, with far greater surface area being exposed. This increases the current the cell can deliver. Daniell cells are also easy to make at home. Aluminum-air batteries can also be produced with high purity aluminum. Aluminum foil batteries will produce some electricity, but they are not very efficient, in part because a significant amount of hydrogen gas is produced.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Attitude Toward Warfare in Beowulf Many historians and authors, such as Tacitus, described Anglo-Saxon England as a region dominated by warlike, belligerent tribes of Germanic descent. These people constantly fought for territories and treasures, which they possessed or wished to acquire. It was the duty of a king or a lord to acquire jewels and armor for his people and that was how he kept his kinsmen loyal to him. In the legendary epic poem, Beowulf, these traits of Anglo-Saxon culture are clearly defined. The character of Beowulf is a true representative of Anglo-Saxon culture. First, Beowulf performs his duties as a kinsman to his uncle, Hygelac, with loyalty and dedication. Further, a reader witnesses Beowulf acting as a lord to his people, acquiring land and treasures for them. Moreover, the attitude of unknown narrator of the poem reflects his support and approval of the culture described in Beowulf. The epic, Beowulf, begins with the funeral of Shield Sheafson, the originator of the Danish people. Shield Sheafson is described as a "scourge of many tribes, a wrecker of mead-benches, rampaging among foes" (lines 4-5). Obviously, this ring-giver has led an aggressive and violent life. He has terrorized his neighbors and rival tribes, destroyed their mead-halls or gathering places, and in addition, made them pay tribute. Therefore, while the king was alive, his tribe was protected from enemies, fed, clothed and enjoyed the treasures which their lord acquired for them. The author of the epic shows his approval of this culture and its attributes by saying that Shield Sheafson "was one good king" (line 10). Kinship was one of the main aspects of Anglo-Saxon England - a lord led his men in fyrd (journey or expedition) against enemies, acquired treasures for them and protected his tribe and in return for all that, his kinsmen were loyal to him and followed their lord in battles. People w ere not identified on a demographic basis, but by their belonging to a particular king or a ring-giver. Furthermore, the idea of kinship is demonstrated in other parts of the epic. When Beowulf is described preparing to fight the dragon, his last battle, Wiglaf follows Beowulf, his lord, into the fray. Wiglaf remains by Beowulf's side until the hero's death, although the rest of Beowulf's warriors disappear with the first sight of the dragon. Wiglaf demonstrates his loyalty not to his country or to his tribe, but particularly to his lord, Beowulf:
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Serotonin Receptors and Transport Being that Fluoxetine (commercial name Prozac) basically functions as a selective reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitter serotonin, some discussion of this transmitter is needed before its reuptake inhibition can be addressed. Serotonin (5 hydroxytrytophan or 5HT, for short) is synthesized from the precursor amino acid tryptophan through the enzyme action of tryptophan hydroxylase (Abelson & Andrews,1997,p.794). This synthesis process occurs in the terminal boutons and the serotonin is contained in vesicles awaiting release when an action potential opens the calcium gates in the presynaptic terminal. Calcium flowing through the gate adheres to the vesicle membrane and to the terminal membrane causing the vesicle to rupture and release the transmitter across the synaptic gap (Kalat,2004,p.61). Serotonin has multiple receptor types and subtypes that are linked to many diverse neurological functions. Beginning in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s, radioligand techniques identified two broad categories of receptors, namely types 5-HT1 and 5-HT2, however, research has since identified another twelve types and associated subtypes bringing the current total to fourteen: 5HT1a,b,d,e,f, 5HT2a,b,c 5HT3, 5HT4, 5HT5a,b 5HT6, and 5HT7 (numbered suffixes represent types, lettered suffixes are subtypes). These serotonin receptor types vary by location within the brain, e.g., the highest density of 5HT1A receptors a found in the hippocampus and dorsal raphe nucleus, whereas the highest concentration of 5-HT2 sites are found in the medial prefrontal cortex (Abelson et al. 1997,p.794). Once released into the synaptic gap, serotonin is not broken down by... ... membrane (Williams et al,1998,p.3291). The exact mechanism for the inhibition is not, as yet, fully understood, however, a more complete chemical analysis of the likely processes is provided in the preceding section entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Specific Chemical Mechanisms.Ã¢â¬ References Abelson, J., & Andrews, P.(Eds.)(1997). Encyclopedia of Human Biology. San Diego, CA: Academy Press. Adelman, G. (Ed.)(1987). Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (Vol.2). Boston: Birkhauser. Kalat, J. W. (2004). Biological Psychology (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thompson-Wadsworth. Siegel, G.J., Agranoff, B.W., Albers, R.W., & Molinoff, P.B. (1994). Basic neurochemistry (5th ed.). New York: Raven Press. Shepherd, G.M. (1994). Neurobiology (3rd ed.). London: Oxford University Press. Williams, S., & Mauro, S. (1998). European journal of neuroscience, 10(10),3288-3295.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The need for organs in the UK is increasing by an outstanding rate, leaving up to 5000 people to die, while waiting for an organ to be donated, each year. Hospitals and their resources are exhausted. The number of donated organs is simply not enough to keep up with the increasing demand for healthy, transplantable organs. Scientists have in recent years come up with numerous advances in this area of science; however various issues have become apparent on the road to successful transplantations. Transplantation is the process of replacing a damaged or failing organ with a compatible functioning one. For years the only foreseeable solution were voluntary donors who allowed the use of their organs after they passed away or live donors who were prepared to donate cells, blood or transplantable organs such as kidneys. The main issue with organ transplantation is the lack of donors. Governments in the past have put forward the idea of compulsory donation. However some people argue that this is unethical and a person has the right to refuse. In some major religions the idea of harming the body after death is just simply not an option. Counter arguments claim that these issues are irrelevant as the number of lives saved would outweigh any negatives; they would be Ã¢â¬Ësaving livesÃ¢â¬â¢. Transplants from human donors are relatively straightforward on the face of it however underneath the surface hides a tangle of ethical and moral concerns. What are the sources of organs used in transplantation? Should we pay for organs? Should someone who has already received one transplant, be allowed a second? Should alcoholics be given liver transplants? Yes, in the United Kingdom, organs are sourced from volunteers, however in recent years the issue of ... ...://stemcells-research.net/2011/07/09/stem-cells-ethics/, Ã¢â¬Ëstem cell ethicsÃ¢â¬â¢ http://ndt.oxfordjournals.org/content/27/3/1246.full.pdf+html?sid=cc03e2a4-2c56-4dfa-9a45-2ac85b454869, Ã¢â¬ËComparison between bortezomib and rituximab in the treatment of antibody-mediated renal allograft rejectionÃ¢â¬â¢ http://bioethics.georgetown.edu/pcbe/background/davispaper.html, Ã¢â¬ËA Staff Working and Discussion Paper; The Ethics of Organ AllocationÃ¢â¬â¢, September 2006 http://www.unos.org/donation/index.php?topic=organ_allocation, Ã¢â¬ËOrgan AllocationÃ¢â¬â¢, updated 2012 Journals/Books: Budiani-Saberi, Da; Delmonico, Fl, "Organ trafficking and transplant tourism: a commentary on the global realities.Ã¢â¬ , American journal of transplantation, May 2008 Videos/movies: http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=7394380n, Ã¢â¬ËStem Cell Fraud: A 60 Minutes investigationÃ¢â¬â¢, CBS NEWS; 60 minutes, January 8, 2012 Organ Transplants Essay -- Medicine The need for organs in the UK is increasing by an outstanding rate, leaving up to 5000 people to die, while waiting for an organ to be donated, each year. Hospitals and their resources are exhausted. The number of donated organs is simply not enough to keep up with the increasing demand for healthy, transplantable organs. Scientists have in recent years come up with numerous advances in this area of science; however various issues have become apparent on the road to successful transplantations. Transplantation is the process of replacing a damaged or failing organ with a compatible functioning one. For years the only foreseeable solution were voluntary donors who allowed the use of their organs after they passed away or live donors who were prepared to donate cells, blood or transplantable organs such as kidneys. The main issue with organ transplantation is the lack of donors. Governments in the past have put forward the idea of compulsory donation. However some people argue that this is unethical and a person has the right to refuse. In some major religions the idea of harming the body after death is just simply not an option. Counter arguments claim that these issues are irrelevant as the number of lives saved would outweigh any negatives; they would be Ã¢â¬Ësaving livesÃ¢â¬â¢. Transplants from human donors are relatively straightforward on the face of it however underneath the surface hides a tangle of ethical and moral concerns. What are the sources of organs used in transplantation? Should we pay for organs? Should someone who has already received one transplant, be allowed a second? Should alcoholics be given liver transplants? Yes, in the United Kingdom, organs are sourced from volunteers, however in recent years the issue of ... ...://stemcells-research.net/2011/07/09/stem-cells-ethics/, Ã¢â¬Ëstem cell ethicsÃ¢â¬â¢ http://ndt.oxfordjournals.org/content/27/3/1246.full.pdf+html?sid=cc03e2a4-2c56-4dfa-9a45-2ac85b454869, Ã¢â¬ËComparison between bortezomib and rituximab in the treatment of antibody-mediated renal allograft rejectionÃ¢â¬â¢ http://bioethics.georgetown.edu/pcbe/background/davispaper.html, Ã¢â¬ËA Staff Working and Discussion Paper; The Ethics of Organ AllocationÃ¢â¬â¢, September 2006 http://www.unos.org/donation/index.php?topic=organ_allocation, Ã¢â¬ËOrgan AllocationÃ¢â¬â¢, updated 2012 Journals/Books: Budiani-Saberi, Da; Delmonico, Fl, "Organ trafficking and transplant tourism: a commentary on the global realities.Ã¢â¬ , American journal of transplantation, May 2008 Videos/movies: http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=7394380n, Ã¢â¬ËStem Cell Fraud: A 60 Minutes investigationÃ¢â¬â¢, CBS NEWS; 60 minutes, January 8, 2012
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Martin Johnson Heade (originally Heed), the eldest son in a large family of Joseph Howell Heed was born on 11th August, 1819 in Lumberville, a small rural location near Doylestown in Bucks country of Pennsylvania (Hollis Taggart Galleries, Para. 1). His father owned a farm and a lumber mill. His life is said to have been influenced by the two cousins, Thomas Hicks and Edward Hicks who probably taught him his first art lessons locally. His passion for art grew considerably in the 1840s, and it is around this time that he took a study tour to England and stayed in Rome Italy for two years. By the year 1843, he was residing in New York and later moved to Brooklyn, where he changed his name to Heade, and later on moved to Philadelphia (Hollis Taggart Galleries, Para. 2). In 1848, he took his second academic European tour to return later in 1850. The second trip did not leave him settled either, as he continued to travel while settling down briefly in the towns of St. Louis, New Haven and Providence. It was in this decade that he deeply studied and explored the effects of light on the environment, a subject that was equally dear to American Luminists Sanford Gifford, John Kensett C as well as Fitz Lane Hugh. Consequently he fully got into landscape painting (Hollis Taggart Galleries, Para. 2). In 1859, he rented a studio in the famous tenth street studio building in New York and became a full time painter (Lurie and Mappen, Pp. 355. ) It is in relation to this that he is remembered for his flora, fauna and landscape paintings that do not only have a rich effect of color and light but could also portray some poetic sentiments. Its while operating from the same studio that he met Fredric Edwin Church from the Hudson River school who was later to become his close friend and associate. This period is seen as the turning point in his life as it signaled the onset of his unique lifestyle and a lasting interest in landscape and paintings. In 1863, he interpreted the chaste Latin American coastal landscape in a unique manner and later toured Rio de Janeiro in Brazil in the same year (Hollis Taggart Galleries Para 3). The goal of the tour was to illustrate a complete different version of South American Hummingbirds. He was so enthusiastic about the Hummingbirds that he hoped to prepare an outstanding and an elegant album about these creatures in Britain. Though he hoped to have this album published in Britain, it was never to happen. Hummingbirds however continued to be a dear subject to him as evidenced by the paintings that he did in the rest of life. He continued making trips to the Latin America notably in Nicaragua, Colombia, Jamaica and Panama. In the course of those visits, he studied the local flora and fauna, painting both large and small landscapes of hummingbirds and orchids, works that saw him get recognition at the gallery exhibition in New York and Boston. At the age of sixty four in 1883, Heade got married and moved to St Augustine in Florida. This is where he was to spend the rest of his life while he continued to exhibit his paintings in northern towns such as Boston and Springfield Massachusetts. He was almost forgotten in the New York City but was later rediscovered during the revival of the Hudson River painting school and has from then on been accorded the respect and major status that he commanded out of his outstanding work. In Florida, an oil tycoon and hotel magnate Henry Morris Flagger invited Heade to set up another studio, which was to be last studio, in a building behind Ponce De Leon, a hotel that was owed by Flagger in St Augustine. In his two decades stay at St Augustine prior to his death on September 4 1904, he continued to paint while fascinated by the flora and fauna located in Florida. His works were mainly Cherokee roses, orchids and magnolias (Hollis Taggart Galleries, Para. 4). The works could often depicted the same flower over and over again but in different blooming states thus bringing out the hidden beauty of the environment that is not obvious to many. During his stay in St Augustine Florida and prior to his death, Heade made more than one hundred and fifty pieces of work . Most of this work focused on the exuberant nature and landscape, flowers, sceneries and fruits of the American south , topics that were dear to him also. It is against this background that he is remembered, having not only taken a lot if interest in a rare subject but also having pursued it with vigor, passion and up to the old age. He did what he liked most and did it best. The outstanding feature of any artistic work done by Heade is their capture of their botanic and scientific accuracy. They note every line on the leaf, every mark on the facet, fruit or blossom. The figures below are example of the artistic work done by the 19th century artist and depict the mystery surrounding him and his interest in the natural world. Though the work was done more than a century ago, the beauty and elegance has surpassed the passage time. Fig. 1 Source: http://www. martin-johnson-heade. org/ Although little is documented in writing about Martin Johnson Heade as he left no identifiable body of writing, his contribution to the field of art and painting is immense. Such is evidenced by the Martin Johnson Heade, a function organized and premiering at the Museum of Fine Arts (MFA) in Boson from the 29th day of September 1999 through the 17th of January 2000 which shed light on Martin Johnson Heade as one of the most original and all time artists in the history of mankind (Traditional Fine Art Online Inc, Para. 1). MFA owns an outstanding collection of work done by Heade including about 30 paintings, numerous drawings and other materials such as sketches and sketch books that he used. Although he was practically unknown during his own days, Heade is today also recognized in America as a great romantic painter and uniquely as a master landscape painter as far as floral still life is concerned. With a career that spanned over seventy years, a lot went to his nameÃ¢â¬â¢s credit as noted during the function organized by MFA, having produced a varied body of work more than any other American artist of the 19th century. Ã¢â¬Å"Martin Johnson Heade is sure to give new insights into the work of one of the most intriguing of American artists, whose paintings have a strange and almost surreal intensity. Heade was one of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s most productive and inventive artists, and his work reflects a wide range of talent and creativity. The exemplary work captures such a variety of moods, from his atmospheric effects, the glory of light, the sumptuous warmth of his orchids and tropical scenes, and the inexplicable sensuality of so many of his works in every genre. I hope recognition of his genius grows as more and more people are introduced to these superb paintingsÃ¢â¬ (Traditional Fine Art Online Inc, Para. 6). During the popular Mesueum of Fine Arts event, HeadeÃ¢â¬â¢s favourite hummingbirds painting was revisited. It was recounted that even if he never managed to secure the two hundred subscriptions needed to print his expensive book, which was never printed anyway, he produced four hummingbird chromolithographs for the book and could at the time be viewed in Boston as well as the sixteen paintings that were intended for the gems of Brazil from the Manoogian collection (Traditional Fine Art Online Inc, Para. 7). Earlier on in 1955, a historian and the then director of Macbeth gallery Robert Mclntyre had donated some work done by Heade to the Archives of American Art. Such included his sketch book, notebooks as well as letters and correspondeces between him and his close friend and associate Fredric Edwin Church between the year 1866 and 1899. In addition, they included a detailed notebook about hummingbirds that is handwritten as well as a circa dated in the range between 1853 to 1877. The scattred papers measure 0. 3 linear feet and date between 1853 and 1904. In the year 2007, the above were completely digitized to enhance archiving and are now avilable online as the Martin Johnson Heade Papers Online. They had first received a preliminary level of processing immediately after donation before being microfilmed in the same order that they were donated. The notebook and the sketchbook being the first ones to have been donated were therefore proffesionally conserved in the year 2004. Another area that is seen to have captured HeadeÃ¢â¬â¢s passion is still lifes of southern flowers especially the magnolia blossoms laid on velevet. This was an advancement of an interest that he had since the 1860Ã¢â¬â¢s. In his earlier work in this genre, he had done flowers keenly arranged in an ormate flower vase and placed either on small or a large table, but covered with a mere cloth as opposed to velvet. At the time, he was the first and the only american artist who could create such an extensive body of work either in still lifes or in landscape and environment. In 2004, Heade was again recognized and honored with an outstanding stamp from the United States Postal Servive featuring a piece of his 1890 oil-on-canvas painting otherwise called Giant magnolias on a blue Velvet cloth. There were few artists who emulated head in the 20th century owing to the fact that he was unpopular at the time. However his work and art has been duplicated and forged by many especially in the 20th and 21st century. Such is attributed to the way his work has continued to turn up in garage sales as well as other unlikely places as opposed to works by other artists such as his friend Fredric Edward Church or ohn Kensett.. The popularity of his work can be attributed to the way he related with middle class buyers, his outstanding passion and effort put in as depicted in his various trips and his willigness to distribute his work all the country. Though unknown to him even at the end of his life, Martin johnson Heade was one of the most outstanding artist that ever existed on the face of earth. His passion in what was then an unpopular venture tells it all. His keen interpretation and approach towards the light and the environmet at large, his representation of the same on his paintings as well as his vigor and dedication to distribute his work, all leave no doubt that he did what he loved and in return loved what he did. His work does not only reveal what is unobvious to many but also unearths what is sincerely unknown and his spirit therefore continues to live moreso through his elegant work. Martin Johnson Heade is no doubt a legend whose life deserves recognition by and over generations while his work continues to demand respect over centuries. Works Cited: Hollis Taggart Galleries. Ã¢â¬Å"Hollis Taggart Gallaries. Ã¢â¬ 2007. 26 May 2010 . Mappen, Marc and Maxine N Lurie. Encyclopedia of New Jersey. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2004. Traditional Fine Art Online Inc. Ã¢â¬Å"Meseum of Fine Arts Boston. Ã¢â¬ 29 September 1999. www. mfa. org. 26 May 2010 .
Monday, September 16, 2019
Workplace discrimination happens when a worker is subjected to unfavorable or unfair treatment based on nationality, caste, religion, gender and race. This means that discrimination against women at the workplace is gender based. It is inclusive of the workers who suffer retaliation due to their refusal to accept work place discrimination. The federal law is against workplace discrimination is all areas i. e. recruitment, training, promotion, demotion and disciplinary actions. The laws that protect people against unfair treatment do so based on the protected characteristics rather than the personality or the performance of the worker.Discrimination can therefore end up being subjective to a large extent and this means that what one person may consider discriminatory, another person might not (Bartos & Wehr, 2002). Forms of workplace discrimination against women Women have a right not to be discriminated against in the workplace as dictated by the international laws. However, the real ity on the ground is that people do not necessarily comply with the law and this means that women are still discriminated against. They are discriminated against in several ways. One, they lack access to the labor market.Studies claim that the rate of unemployment is higher among women compared to men (Gilliland, Steiner & Skarlicki, 2007). It also indicates that women have a lower participation in labor force when compared to men. There are also more women working at part time jobs than men although this might not be their choice. They further indicate that compared to men, there are more women who work for jobs they are overqualified. Statistics continue to show that among the discouraged workers i. e. the unemployed people who have stopped looking for jobs due to the unavailability of work, there are more women than men.These people are usually shut out of employment due to cultural, social, structural barriers or basically discrimination (Chirwa, 1999). Secondly, there is a big wage gap between employed men and women doing the same kind of work. Women get 15-30% less for work of same value done by men. Studies show that women are not safeguarded by higher educational achievements especially where high positions count. In several countries, the more educated a woman is, the bigger the wage gap (Gilliland, Steiner & Skarlicki, 2007). Despite the fact that women live longer than men, in a lifetime, they earn less.This makes them to be less advantaged when it comes to conditions for pension insurance. They also get lesser pensions on retirement. This kind of discrimination is global affecting even the first world nations despite the existence of laws protecting women against discrimination. Thirdly, we have the issue of glass ceiling. This is the practice where women are least considered when promotions are being done. Most companies have 90% and above of men in their executive positions and the same kind of percentage of women in the lowest positions. In most cases, the higher a post is, the lesser the chance of a woman occupying it.This is irrespective of the educational level of the woman. In fact, women who manage to be at the executive positions are usually an exception to the rule. Even in the companies which are female dominated, you still find more men in the executive positions (Gregory, 2003). The major reasons for such problems are as a result of discrimination against women. The society makes women to compensate or pay a gender penalty as mothers. Most employers do not want to handle the hassles which come with motherhood and therefore, they solve the problem by employing more men than women.However, studies indicate that employers incur an increased cost of 1% or less of gross income of women workers when they hire a woman than when they employ a man. Other than the economic reasons, women are also discriminated against as a result of misguided preconceptions and stereotyping about womenÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities and roles, leaders hip style and commitment (Landrine & Klonoff, 1997). Sociological perspectives Workplace discrimination against women can be looked at through three sociological perspectives.The first perspective of functionalism which is built upon two emphases: a) use of similarity between society and individuals and b) applying scientific methods to the social world. The first emphasis on the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s unity makes functionalists to hypothesize about peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s needs which have to be met in order for a social system to be there. It also makes them to consider the ways through which those needs are met by social institutions. The similarity between individuals and society is focused on the homeostatic features of social systems i. e. social systems are there to maintain balance when it is disturbed by external shocks.This is basically achieved through socializing society members to certain common norms and values which enable consensus to be achieved. In the cases where socialization i s not fully sufficient to achieve so, some social control mechanisms are used to either reinstate conformity or isolate the people who can not be conventional from the society. These include gossip, sneering and sanctions (Gilliland, Steiner & Skarlicki, 2007). The second emphasis asserts that the social world can be studied just like a physical world. Functionalists view social world as real and as one which can be observed through interviews and social surveys.It also assumes that the values of the investigatorÃ¢â¬â¢s do not have to interfere with search for laws which govern social systemÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. This perspective tries to show that peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior is usually molded by the forces in the society. Individuals are treated as puppets whose behavior is as a result of the internalized expectations and the social structure of where they were brought up or live. In relation to workplace discrimination against women, functionalists would argue that men discriminate ag ainst women because that is the way the society is (Landrine & Klonoff, 1997).Conventionally, women were treated as home makers and children bearers and men as the bread winners. Although the world has evolved and women have become educated, the society still feels that men should provide and women should take care of their families. Working and earning are only seen as additional benefits of women in the society but they have to fulfill their roles as mothers and homemakers. It is not a wonder then when men do not find women competitive enough to handle the roles which men have always thought that they are theirs. At the same time, men may not feel that women should get better positions in a menÃ¢â¬â¢s world.The issue of maternity leaves and sick offs for pregnant women make men view them as incompetent. This explains why men are against women climbing up the ladder. Functionalists claim that is the way the social structure dictates (Chirwa, 1999). The second perspective is symbo lic interactionism. This is a sociological perspective about the society and self which was founded by pragmatists. It dictates that peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives are lived in the symbolic field. People derive symbols from social objects which have shared meanings which they create and maintain during social interactions.Symbols usually give provision to the ways through which reality is constructed through communication and language. Reality then becomes product of the society and peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s culture, society, minds and self are based on such symbols. These are the ones which determine human conduct (Gilliland, Steiner & Skarlicki, 2007). In relation to workplace discrimination against women, the society has created symbols which guide its thinking regarding how things should operate. For example, the society looks at men as leaders, heroes, heads and people who show others the way forward.The symbol that the society has created regarding women is that of submission, weakness and peopl e who follow instructions which have already been made by men. When a woman becomes a leader, she goes against the symbols that the society has already established. This is expressed in almost all aspects of life. In movies, the heroes are always men and when we have women, they are created as people who can not make decisions. On the other hand, men who are led by women are seen as weak. This can therefore explain why men do not want to give women leadership positions because that is a symbol of weakness.When women are subjected to this kind of life, they also accept their position as followers and the ones in leadership positions are seen as exceptions to the symbols in a society (Gregory, 2003). Finally, we have the conflict theory as the third perspective of looking at discrimination against women at the workplace. This theory argues that individuals and social classes or groups in a society have different quantities of resources, both non-material and material and that the grou ps which have more usually make use of their power to take advantage of the ones with less power.Its believed that the people in power make use of it in order to keep their favorable positions. They use it to keep the less powerful from gaining as this would only jeopardize their position. This can then explain why women are discriminated against at the workplace. Men have had power for a long time which they gained from the favorable position that the society places them in. However, women have catch up and they also have power in terms of money and education and this threatens the menÃ¢â¬â¢s position in the society.Men in leadership use their power to act as barriers towards womenÃ¢â¬â¢s progression because they do not want them taking their favorable positions. When women are discriminated against in terms of less payments and lack of career advancement, they lose their leverage to gain the power which is to the advantage of men (Bartos & Wehr, 2002). Conclusion Discriminatio n against women makes them to be offered employment which is not gratifying. They get jobs which may not allow career advancement, jobs paying less and work which is precarious.They are also subjected to mobbing, bullying, sexual and moral harassment as well as unfriendly corporate culture. All these contribute to lower labor force participation among women which translates to economic loss in terms of higher social security and unemployment benefits, reduced tax income and lowered economic growth. This means that if men could appreciate the changes in the world and embrace the idea of career women who have equal opportunities as men, this would not only promote sound economic goals but also, it would improve social cohesion in America.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
A hybrid health record is a record that contains patient health information and is made up of physical paper documentation as well as electronic documentation. The patient information/documentation can vary within the record as a whole and access to particular information requires different paths. Manual and electronic processes are utilized to input and maintain patient health information in a hybrid health record. Hybrid health records are utilized in the transitioning process to go from paper to fully electronic. These hybrid records can present a number of concerns for the health care professionals.The upkeep and accurateness of data input into the records can be a big issue if paper and electronic versions are not consistently updated to reflect one another. Quality of patient care then becomes an issue which could result in health care professionals delivering care with incorrect patient information. With the aim to go completely paperless the electronic version of the record s hould contain the most up to date information. Healthcare professionals and staff need to work diligently to maintain a hybrid health recordsÃ¢â¬â¢ integrity.Another concern is security because patient information is located in more than one place and has multiple access platforms. Security for hybrid health records involves more than just physical security all the digital information must be protected and any access given limited. Patient access to their health record in its entirety could present issues if record tracking and upkeep isnÃ¢â¬â¢t maintained on both electronic and manual platforms. As well as forms in which patients will be given access to their record. Patient could receive all information electronically, paper, or a combination of both. Ã¢â¬ ¦ information available to the patient electronically may be a subset of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s designated record set. In such cases, the EHR should indicate where the primary or complete information resides and how it can be accessedÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Managing the transition, 2012Ã¢â¬ ). With the transition from paper to electronic and in-between hybrid process access to patient health information has complicated a bit but for the better. New policies to stop unauthorized release of information must be put into place because with changing environments old procedures must be modified and adapt to the way of doing things.First implement mandatory procedure training to ensure staff understands what information can be access and how it can be used. Also implement tracking for physical records as well as procedures within electronic systems to monitor who has access and accesses patient information. Next printing should be limited and any and all electronic platforms are to be utilized as the staffÃ¢â¬â¢s main access point for patient information. References Managing the transition from paper to ehrs. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://library. ahima. org/xpedio/groups/public/documents/ahima/bok1_048418. hcsp ? dDocName=bok1_048418
Saturday, September 14, 2019
The BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s Wheel, according to the BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s verbs and matching assessment types. The verbs are intended to be feasible and measurable. BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s Taxonomy is a classification of learning objectives within education proposed in 1956 by a committee of educators chaired by Benjamin Bloom who also edited the first volume of the standard text, Taxonomy of educational objectives: the classification of educational goals (referred to as simply Ã¢â¬Å"the HandbookÃ¢â¬ below). Although named after Bloom, the publication followed a series of conferences from 1949 to 1953, which were designed to improve communication between educators on the design of curricula and examinations. It refers to a classification of the different objectives that educators set for students (learning objectives). BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s Taxonomy divides educational objectives into three Ã¢â¬Å"domainsÃ¢â¬ : Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor (sometimes loosely described asknowing/head, feeling /heart and doing/hands respectively). Within the domains, learning at the higher levels is dependent on having attained prerequisite knowledge and skills at lower levels. A goal of BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s Taxonomy is to motivate educators to focus on all three domains, creating a more holistic form of education. A revised version of the taxonomy was created in 2000. BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s Taxonomy is considered to be a foundational and essential element within the education community as evidenced in the 1981 survey Significant writings that have influenced the curriculum: 1906-1981, by H.G. Shane and the 1994 yearbook of theNational Society for the Study of Education. A mythology has grown around the taxonomy, possibly due to many people learning about the taxonomy through second hand information. Bloom himself considered the Handbook, Ã¢â¬Å"One of the most widely cited yet least read books in American education.Ã¢â¬  Key to understanding the taxonomy and its revisions, variations, and addenda over the years is an understanding that the original Handbook in 1956 was intended only to have focus on one of the three domains (as indicated in the domain specification in title: The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Handbook I: Cognitive Domain), but there was expectation that additional material would be generated for the other domains (as indicated in the numbering of the handbook in the title). The second volume, Handbook II: Affective Domain edited by David Krathwohl was published in 1964. There was no Handbook of and III for the Psychomotor domain published by the committee as the consensus was that (as college level academics) they lacked the necessary experience to do the job properly. Substitute domain taxonomies have been published by various authors to fill the gap.. Bloom also considered the initial effort to be a starting point, as evidenced in a memorandum from 1971 in which he said, Ã¢â¬Å"Ideally each major field should have its own taxonomy in its own language Ã¢â¬â more detailed, closer to the special language and thinking of its experts, reflecting its own appropriate sub-divisions and levels of education, with possible new categories, combinations of categories and omitting categories as appropriate.Ã¢â¬  Cognitive Categories in the cognitive domain of BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s Taxonomy (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001) Skills in the cognitive domain revolve around knowledge, comprehension, and critical thinking of a particular topic. Traditional education tends to emphasize the skills in this domain, particularly the lower-order objectives. There are six levels in the taxonomy, moving through the lowest order processes to the highest: ]Knowledge Exhibit memory of previously learned materials by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts and answers * Knowledge of specifics Ã¢â¬â terminology, specific facts * Knowledge of ways and means of dealing with specifics Ã¢â¬â conventions, trends and sequences, classifications and categories, criteria, methodology * Knowledge of the universals and abstractions in a field Ã¢â¬â principles and generalizations, theories and structures Questions like: What are the health benefits of eating apples? Comprehension Demonstrative understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions, and stating main ideas * Translation * Interpretation * Extrapolation Questions like: Compare the health benefits of eating apples vs. orange. Application Using new knowledge. Solve problems to new situations by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way Questions like: Which kinds of apples are best for baking a pie, and why? Analysis Examine and break information into parts by identifying motives or causes. Make inferences and find evidence to support generalizations * Analysis of elements * Analysis of relationships * Analysis of organizational principles Questions like: List four ways of serving foods made with apples and explain which ones have the highest health benefits. Provide references to support your statements. Synthesis Compile information together in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions * Production of a unique communication * Production of a plan, or proposed set of operations * Derivation of a set of abstract relations Questions like: Convert an Ã¢â¬Å"unhealthyÃ¢â¬ recipe for apple pie to a Ã¢â¬Å"healthyÃ¢â¬ recipe by replacing your choice of ingredients. Explain the health benefits of using the ingredients you chose vs. the original ones. Evaluation Present and defend opinions by making judgments about information, validity of ideas or quality of work based on a set of criteria * Judgments in terms of internal evidence * Judgments in terms of external criteria Questions like: Do you feel that serving apple pie for an after school snack for children is healthy? Affective Skills in the affective domain describe the way people react emotionally and their ability to feel another living thingÃ¢â¬â¢s pain or joy. Affective objectives typically target the awareness and growth inattitudes, emotion, and feelings. There are five levels in the affective domain moving through the lowest order processes to the highest: Receiving The lowest level; the student passively pays attention. Without this level no learning can occur. Responding The student actively participates in the learning process, not only attends to a stimulus; the student also reacts in some way. Valuing The student attaches a value to an object, phenomenon, or piece of information. Organizing The student can put together different values, information, and ideas and accommodate them within his/her own schema; comparing, relating and elaborating on what has been learned. Characterizing The student holds a particular value or belief that now exerts influence on his/her behaviour so that it becomes a characteristic. Psychomotor Skills in the psychomotor domain describe the ability to physically manipulate a tool or instrument like a hand or a hammer. Psychomotor objectives usually focus on change and/or development in behavior and/or skills. Bloom and his colleagues never created subcategories for skills in the psychomotor domain, but since then other educators have created their own psychomotor taxonomies. Simpson (1972) among other contributors, such as Harrow (1972) and Dave (1967), created a Psychomotor Taxonomy that helps to explain the behavior of typical learners or high performance athletes. The proposed levels are: Perception The ability to use sensory cues to guide motor activity. This ranges from sensory stimulation, through cue selection, to translation. Examples: Detects non-verbal communication cues. Estimate where a ball will land after it is thrown and then moving to the correct location to catch the ball. Adjusts heat of stove to correct temperature by smell and taste of food. Adjusts the height of the forks on a forklift by comparing where the forks are in relation to the pallet. Key Words: chooses, describes, detects, differentiates, distinguishes, identifies, isolates, relates, selects. Set Readiness to act. It includes mental, physical, and emotional sets. These three sets are dispositions that predetermine a personÃ¢â¬â¢s response to different situations (sometimes called mindsets). Examples: Knows and acts upon a sequence of steps in a manufacturing process. Recognize oneÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities and limitations. Shows desire to learn a new process (motivation). NOTE: This subdivision of Psychomotor is closely related with the Ã¢â¬Å"Responding to phenomenaÃ¢â¬ subdivision of the Affective domain. Key Words: begins, displays, explains, moves, proceeds, reacts, shows, states, volunteers. Guided Response The early stages in learning a complex skill that includes imitation and trial and error. Adequacy of performance is achieved by practicing. Examples: Performs a mathematical equation as demonstrated. Follows instructions to build a model. Responds to hand-signals of instructor while learning to operate a forklift. Key Words: copies, traces, follows, react, reproduce, responds Mechanism This is the intermediate stage in learning a complex skill. Learned responses have become habitual and the movements can be performed with some confidence and proficiency. Examples: Use a personal computer. Repair a leaking faucet. Drive a car. Key Words: assembles, calibrates, constructs, dismantles, displays, fastens, fixes, grinds, heats, manipulates, measures, mends, mixes, organizes, sketches. Complex Overt Response The skillful performance of motor acts that involve complex movement patterns. Proficiency is indicated by a quick, accurate, and highly coordinated performance, requiring a minimum of energy. This category includes performing without hesitation, and automatic performance. For example, players will often utter sounds of satisfaction or expletives as soon as they hit a tennis ball or throw a football, because they can tell by the feel of the act what the result will produce. Examples: Maneuvers a car into a tight parallel parking spot. Operates a computer quickly and accurately. Displays competence while playing the piano. Key Words: assembles, builds, calibrates, constructs, dismantles, displays, fastens, fixes, grinds, heats, manipulates, measures, mends, mixes, organizes, sketches. NOTE: The Key Words are the same as Mechanism, but will have adverbs or adjectives that indicate that the performance is quicker, better, more accurate, etc. Adaptation Skills are well developed and the individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirements. Examples: Responds effectively to unexpected experiences. Modifies instruction to meet the needs of the learners. Perform a task with a machine that it was not originally intended to do (machine is not damaged and there is no danger in performing the new task). Key Words: adapts, alters, changes, rearranges, reorganizes, revises, varies. Origination Creating new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or specific problem. Learning outcomes emphasize creativity based upon highly developed skills. Examples: Constructs a new theory. Develops a new and comprehensive training programming. Creates a new gymnastic routine. Key Words: arranges, builds, combines, composes, constructs, creates, designs, initiate, makes, originates. Definition of Knowledge In the appendix to Handbook I, there is a definition of knowledge which serves as the apex for an alternative, summary classification of the educational goals. This is significant as the Taxonomy has been called upon significantly in other fields such as knowledge management, potentially out of context Ã¢â¬Å"| Knowledge, as defined here, involves the recall of specifics and universals, the recall of methods and processes, or the recall of a pattern, structure, or setting. (Bloom et al. 1956 p 201)| Ã¢â¬ | The taxonomy is set out: * 1.00 Knowledge * 1.10 Knowledge of Specifics * 1.11 Knowledge of Terminology * 1.12 Knowledge of Specific Facts * 1.20 Knowledge of Ways and Means of Dealing with Specifics * 1.21 Knowledge of Conventions * 1.22 Knowledge of Trends and Sequences * 1.23 Knowledge of Classifications and Categories * 1.24 Knowledge of Criteria * 1.25 Knowledge of Methodology * 1.30 Knowledge of The Universals and Abstractions in a Field * 1.31 Knowledge of Principles and Generalizations * 1.32 Knowledge of Theories and Structures (Bloom et al. 1956 p 201-204) Criticism of the Taxonomy As Morshead pointed out on the publication of the second volume, the classification wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a properly constructed taxonomy, as it lacked a systemic rationale of construction. This was subsequently acknowledged in the discussion of the original taxonomy by Krathwohl et al. in the revision of the taxonomy and the taxonomy reestablished on more systematic lines. It is generally considered that the role the taxonomy played in systematising a field was more important than any perceived lack of rigour in its construction. Some critiques of BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s TaxonomyÃ¢â¬â¢s (cognitive domain) admit the existence of these six categories, but question the existence of a sequential, hierarchical link. Also the revised edition of BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s taxonomy has moved Synthesis in higher order than Evaluation. Some consider the three lowest levels as hierarchically ordered, but the three higher levels as parallel. Others say that it is sometimes better to move to Application before introducing concepts. This thinking would seem to relate to the method of problem-based learning.